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absorption1) With respect to Radiation Protection , absorption describes a mode by which Radioactive materials may enter the body leading to an Internal Radiation hazard. For example it is well known that H-3 contamination on the skin will be readily absorbed and take
2) properties
3) абсорбция, поглощение; лучепоглощение; впитывание; амортизация; абсорбционный
4) The assimilation of one material into another; in petroleum refining, the use of an absorptive liquid to selectively remove components from a process stream.
5) the process of taking in. for a person or an animal, absorption is the process of a substance getting into the body through the eyes, skin, stomach, intestines, or lungs.
6) caused by impurities introduced during the manufacturing process, absorption creates loss in a fiber by turning light energy into heat. the amount of absorption is determined by the wavelength and depends upon the composition of the glass or plastic. and scattering are the two causes of intrinsic attenuation in an optical fiber
7) transformation of radiant energy to a different form of energy by the interaction of matter, depending on temperature and wavelength.
8) occurs when light is not reflected, refracted, or transmitted. the light energy is transformed into another form, such as heat.
active dosimeterAn active dosimeter is used in Dosimetry to measure Radiation exposure, usually to individuals. Being active, the dosimeter can provide real-time instant information about radiation Dose and Dose Rate . See EPD for more specific information on devices, an
active radiation detectorAn active radiation detector can describe either Dosimetry or Radiation measurement equipment which gives instantaneous real time information, rather than an accumulative count over a time period. The RAM GENE-1 dose rate / contamination monitor is an exa
air samplingWith respect to Radiation Protection , air sampling involves the collection of samples of air in order to measure and detect the presence of airborne Radioactive material. This information can be used to determine the likely Inhalation risk and associated
alaraALARA: As Low as Reasonably Achievable (social and economic factors being taken into account). This term was introduced by the ICRP and requires that all be reasonably done to lower Radiation exposures below Dose Limits .
annihilation (positron - electron)Annihilation (Positron - Electron) radiation occurs when an electron (negatively charged) collides with a Positron (positively changed & the electron’s anti-particle). The usual result is the emission of two gamma ray photons – each of 511 KeV travell
atomic massThe atomic mass represents the total number of Protons & Neutrons in an atom. For example, in the Carbon 14 atom shown above there are 6 (red) Protons and 8 (blue) neutrons packed into the nucleus. Therefore the atomic mass is 14 (and hence we write C
atomic number1) The number of Protons within an Atom . E.g. Uranium-238 (92) contains 92 protons. Also gives the number of Electrons .
2) атомное число
background radiationIonising Radiation in our environment which we are all exposed to, the exact magnitude depending on our location in the world. Examples include Radon Gas , Cosmic Rays and K-40.
becquerelThe SI unit for Activity . The Becquerel (Bq) is equivalent to 1 disintegration per second (dps) . Also see the older unit of activity, the Curie .
beta particleThe beta particle has the form of a high speed negatively charged electron (or a positively charged electron in the case of the positron). In beta decay (electron emission) a neutron in the nucleus is converted to a proton with the release of a high speed
biological dosimetryBiological dosimetry is a branch of the field of Dosimetry which uses biological samples, usually taken from individuals who have been exposed to radioactive materials, as a means to assess intakes by Inhalation and Ingestion . For example analysis of uri
brachytherapyBrachytherapy is a cancer treatment where Radioactive seeds (Sealed Sources ) are placed in or near a tumour, therefore giving a high Radiation Dose to the tumour while reducing the radiation exposure in the surrounding healthy tissues
braking radiationSee Bremsstrahlung radiation.
bremsstrahlungBremsstrahlung, also known as Braking Radiation occurs when ever a charged particle undergoes a change of velocity as it interacts with an absorber. Electromagnetic Radiation (X-Rays ) are the result. For Radiation Protection purposes, Bremsstrahlung radi
cherenkov radiationCherenkov radiation is Electromagnetic (non-ionising) radiation emitted when a charged particle (e.g. an Electron ) passes through a medium (e.g. water) at a speed greater than that of light in the medium. This can be seen as the characteristic "blue
chronic exposure1) Exposure to sources of Ionising Radiation over a long period of time, possibly resulting in adverse health effects such as cancer or genetic disorders in offspring of exposed parents. Likely result of a Probabilistic / Stochastic effect of ionising radiat
2) contact with a substance that occurs over a long time (more than 1 year) [compare with acute exposure and intermediate duration exposure]
collective doseMore accurately known as Collective Effective dose . This quantity is derived from summing the individual effective doses within an exposed population (or workforce). One type of unit to express this quantity is the man Sv. This quantity has been used to
consumer productsAny household product that contains a quantity of radioactive material yielding Ionising Radiation for reasons of functionality of that item. Examples include ionisation smoke detectors and luminising items such as watches and clocks which contain radium
contamination1) Usually an undesirable situation where radioactive material in an Unsealed Source (open source) state is present in the working environment, or otherwise un-contained and not required. Contamination can either be loose (easily removed) or fixed. Loose con
2) загрязнение; заражение
controlled area1) Controlled Area is defined in the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999. A Controlled Area is an area where any person is likely to receive more than 6 mSv Effective dose (or 3/10 of any other UK Dose Limit ) and / or an area where specific and detailed pr
2) a locale where the activities of those within are subject to control and supervision for the purpose of laser radiation hazard protection.
curieThe Curie (Ci) is the traditional unit of Activity (where its SI equivalent in the Becquerel ). 1 Ci is equivalent to 3.7 E10 disintegrations per second (dps) and since 1Bq=1dps it follows that 1Ci = 3.7 E10 Bq (approximately). The Ci was based on the act
decay constantThe decay constant represents the probability of a Decay of a Radioactive material per unit time.
decommissioningA general term applied to situations were nuclear plant (or any other plant containing sources of Ionising Radiations ) comes to the end of its useful life. Decommissioning is then required in order to dismantle the plant and recover Radioactive materials
decontamination1) A general expression applied to situations where undesirable Contamination is removed from plant, fixtures, fittings or people. This process may simply be wiping up the contamination with a tissue, although could require applying an industrial striping te
2) очистка от загрязнений
depleted uraniumA by-product of Enriched uranium production. Depleted Uranium can be used as Radiation Shielding) (approximately twice as effective as lead for gamma rays), battle armour and in conventional weapons (its high density and self-sharpening properties being m
deterministic effectA deterministic effect describes Ionising Radiation induced damage where a Dose threshold exists, and for which the severity of damage increases with increasing Dose above that threshold. Examples will include radiation burns (skin reddening), hair loss,
disposalA general term applied to Radioactive Wastes which require disposal, for which there is no intention of recovery. In reality there may be circumstances where some capability for recovery is maintained (e.g. ILW wastes at UK nuclear power stations).
dose limitsWith respect to Radiation Protection , dose limits are recommended by international bodies such as the ICRP , and then set as legal limits within individual counties legislation. For example, in the UK Dose Limits to employees of radiation employers, memb
dosimeterA general term applied to devices designed to record Personal Exposure , as apposed to Environmental Exposure . The devices may be in the form of a Passive Dosimeter or an Active Dosimeter . Passive dosimeters will include Film Badges and TLD , whilst act
dosimetryDosimetry is a general term applied to the practice of measuring radiation exposure. Dosimetry is a very large area of Radiation Protection , see Dosimeter , Passive Dosimetry , Active Dosimetry and Biological Dosimetry for more specific information.
effective doseThe Effective Dose is obtained by taking the Equivalent Dose (Dose Equivalent ) and multiplying by a Tissue Weighting Factor which relates to the organs / tissues under consideration. Effective Dose can therefore also be considered a doubly weighted Absor
electron1) The electron is a low mass particle ( 1/1836 that of a Proton ) with a unit negative electric charge. In simple terms the electrons are said to orbit around the Nucleus of Atoms . Positively charged electrons can also exist, these being known as Positrons
2) negatively charged particle of an atom.
element1) An element represents the simplest form of a chemical where all the Atoms share the same Atomic Number . This will include, for example, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Carbon.
2) элемент; компонент
3) элемент; компонент; деталь
enriched uraniumUranium where the content U-235 is increased above its natural value of around 0.7% by weight. The enrichment process will also yield Depleted Uranium . Enriched Uranium is Fissile and can undergo nuclear fission under certain conditions, its therefore us
environmental exposureWith respect to Radiation Protection , environmental exposure refers to Ionising Radiation exposure within the workplace or wider environment. Also see Personal Exposure .
erythemaErythema presents itself as a reddening of the skin which is caused by blood vessel dilation. It is a common sign of Deterministic Radiation Effects , particularly from high energy Beta emitters or X-Rays .
exemption ordersExemption Orders were made under the UK Radioactive Substances Act 1960 as statutory instruments , now superseded by the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 (despite this, the orders remain legally valid). They specify classes of premises, undertakings, entit
external radiationThe external radiation (hazard) exists where an absorber (typically a person) is being exposed to a source of Ionising Radiation external to the body. Examples would include exposures to Sealed Sources , dental X-Rays and Cosmic Rays . One feature of this
fallout1) Fallout is a general term applied to Radioactive materials, produced by detonation of a nuclear device in the atmosphere, which fall back to earth. Fallout can sometimes be thought of as a secondary (radiation / contamination) hazard from a nuclear weapon
2) выпадение (радиоактивных) осадкрв
fast neutronsNeutrons which have been ejected from a fissioning Nucleus . (Also see Thermal Neutrons ).
film badgeThe Film Badge is a type of Passive Dosimeter . It consists of a photographic emulsion film, which responds to Ionising Radiation by changing optical density, in a light tight wrapping (contained in a holder). The holder, which also contains various filte
fission(Nuclear) Fission is the process where a heavy nuclei (e.g. U-235) decays by splitting into two equal fragments (fission fragments). This process proceeds with the emission of Neutrons and Gamma Rays , the neutrons being available to initiated further fis
fluence rateFluence can be defined as the total number of particles (typically Gamma Ray Photons ) crossing over a sphere of unit cross section which surrounds a Point Source of Ionising Radiation . The Fluence rate is the number of particles crossing per unit time (
free radicalFree radicals can be formed in biological materials (e.g. DNA ) when they undergo Ionisation (by interaction with Ionising Radiation ). The free radical can be thought of as a reactive charged molecule which will readily combine with other cell constituen
gamma raysGamma Rays are a type of high energy Electromagnetic Electromagnetic spectrum in the form of Photons which have no mass. In Radioactive Decay they originate from changes in the structure and energy levels of the Atomic Nucleus , or, through electron-posit
gamma-ray constant (specific)The (specific) Gamma-ray Constant is a useful numerical quantity which is used to predict exposure in terms of Equivalent Dose per unit activity per unit distance. As the term is a constant, distance and activity values will vary in a linear fashion with
genetic effectsGenetics effects (with respect to Radiation Protection ) are those effects present in the offspring of those exposed to Probabilistic / Stochastic levels of Ionising Radiation .
glove boxThe glove box is a type of enclosure used to completely contain Radioactive materials, thus separating them from the operator who needs to manipulate them. They are normally constructed from either a fibre glass material or stainless steel and incorporate
half-life1) Half-life is closely related to the property of Radioactive Decay and represents the time taken for half the Atoms in a Radioactive substances to undergo decay and change into another nuclear form (either a radioactive daughter product or a stable form).
2) 1. a measurement of the period of time taken before the concentration of a drug has reached half of what it was when it was administered 2. the time taken for half the atoms in a radioactive isotope to decay
half-life (biological)The biological half-life is the time taken for half of a radioactive material, (present in a body as a result of inhalation , ingestion , injection or absorption ), to be eliminated by the biological processes in that body.
health physicsA term used for the practice of Radiological Protection. A practitioner may be known as a Health Physicist or perhaps in the UK a Radiation Protection Adviser (RPA) .
hereditary effectsHereditary effects (with respect to Radiation Protection ) are those effects present in the offspring of those exposed to Probabilistic / Stochastic levels of ionising radiation. See Genetic Effects .
icrp1) The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is an independent registered charity, established to advance, for the public benefit, the science of radiological protection, in particular by providing recommendations and guidance on all asp
2) international commission for radiological
ingestion1) With respect to Radiation Protection , ingestion describes one possible mode by which Radioactive materials may enter the body and therefore present an Internal Radiation protection hazard. Ingestion may occur where ever loose Contamination exists, either
2) the act of swallowing something through eating, drinking, or mouthing objects. a hazardous substance can enter the body this way [see route of exposure].
3) 1. the act of taking in food, drink or medicine by the mouth 2. the process by which a foreign body such as a bacillus is surrounded by a cell
internal radiationThe internal radiation (hazard) exists where radioactive materials enter the body. The materials can enter via inhalation, ingestion, absorption or injection. Once in the body they will enter the systemic system where they will then migrate to the organs
inverse square law1) The inverse square law applies to any entity which radiates out from a point in space (see Point Source and Fluence Rate to expand on this concept). With respect to Radiation Protection , the law says if you double your distance from a source of Ionising
2) a law of illumination which states that the illumination of a surface
ion1) An ion is a charged Atom or molecule. The ion is charged because the number of Electrons do not equal the number of Protons in the atom or molecule. If the atom or molecule contains an excess of electrons it will be negatively charged (e.g. OH-) where as
2) institute of navigation
ion pairIon pairs are created when an Atom or molecule undergoes the process of Ionisation . They either loose or gain Electrons leading a net positive or negative charge. In simple terms, if water (H2O) undergoes ionisation it will form OH- and H+ ions (an ion p
ionisationIonisation is the process where by an Atom or molecule gains or looses an Electron and thus becomes an Ion . Ionising Radiation has sufficient energy to be able to ionise atoms and molecules and thus produce ions.
ionisation chamberThe ionisation chamber is a device designed to measure Ionising Radiation exposure. In simple terms it consists of a chamber which may either be sealed (containing a gas) or vented to free air. Within the chamber are two electrodes to which a high potenti
joule1) The Joule (J) is the SI unit of energy. One Joule is the energy expended when a force of one newton is applied over a displacement of one meter in the direction of the force. The use of the joule is probably limited in Radiation Protection but is used in
2) A unit of work, energy, or heat. 1J (joule)=1 Nm) (Newton meter).
3) джоуль
ld-50In general terms, LD-50 is used as an index to describe effectiveness of some entity producing a response in a subject, where that response occurs in 50% of the subjects. In Radiation Protection it is commonly used to describe the value of Absorbed Dose i
line sourceWith respect to Ionising Radiation , a line source describes a Radioactive source which can be represented by a line between points A-B in any chosen plane. Calculations of Dose Rates from line sources are more complicated than those from Point Sources an
linear attenuation coefficientThe Linear Attenuation Coefficient is used in the description and calculation of exponential absorption of Gamma Rays . The quantity normally has the dimensions cm-1 and describes the fraction of gamma rays that are attenuated per unit thickness of absorb
linear dose responseLinear Dose Response in Radiation Protection relates to the zero-threshold model which predicts that every small addition of radiation exposure contributes to an increment in the probability of a Probabilistic / Stochastic effect. The response relies on t
low level waste (llw)Low Level Waste (LLW) consists mainly of items such as protective clothing, laboratory equipment, packing materials, containers and site equipment which have come into contact with Radioactive material and are no longer useful. In the UK the definition of
moderatorGeneral term for materials used in nuclear reactors to reduce the energy (speed) of Fast Neutrons to that of Thermal (slow) Neutrons . The thermal neutrons are then able to interact and Fission with U-235.
neutrinoThe neutrino is a particle with no mass or charge. It is emitted during Beta decay during the emission of a beta particle. It has no great significance with respect to Radiation Protection but great interest still remains in its properties.
occupational exposureWith respect to Radiation Protection , occupational exposure is an exposure which occurs during work with sources of Ionising Radiation . For example, exposures received from working on a nuclear reactor, in nuclear reprocessing or by a dental nurse takin
open sourceWith respect to Radiation Protection , an open source is a source of Ionising Radiation in the form of Radioactive material which is not encapsulated or otherwise contained. The implication is that open radioactive material can move around and if uncontro
over exposureWith respect to Radiation Protection , an over exposure means a person who has received an unexpected (non-routine) level of Ionising Radiation exposure above some permitted level (Dose Limits ). The over exposure may result in breach of regulations, but
passive dosimeterA passive dosimeter is a device used to record Personal Exposure to Radiation (and sometimes Environmental Exposure ). Examples are the Film Badge and the Thermo Luminescent Dosimeter (TLD) . An alternative is to use an Active Dosimeter which provide real
personal decontaminationPersonal decontamination requires the removal of Radioactive Contamination from the clothes and skin (including eyes, ears mouth and hair) of a contaminated person. Whilst it is obviously advantageous to remove contamination quickly, it should be done so
personal exposurePersonal Exposure is taken to mean Ionising Radiation exposure which is received by a person (as apposed to many people collectively or the environment)
planar sourceWith respect to Radiation Protection , a plane source describes a source of Ionising Radiation which can physically be represented by a thin flat area (e.g area of contaminated). Sources are often represented in this way when calculations of estimates of
polonium - 210 (po-210)Polonium 210 (Po-210) is an Alpha Emitter with a Half-Life of around 138 days. Po-210 is all around us in the environment at low concentrations (e.g. water, cigarette smoke, NORM, Radon etc). It is also used in industry, primarily in static elimination de
positronThe positron has properties which are identical to those of a negatively charged Electron , except that it has a positive charge. Positrons are unstable in matter and disappear by Annihilation with negatively charged electrons. This produces two Gamma Ray
probabilistic effectsWith respect to Radiation Protection , probabilistic effects (also referred to as Stochastic ) represent radiation harm for which there is no threshold (see Linear Dose Response ) . Even the smallest quantity of Ionising Radiation exposure can be said to
probabilistic safety assessment (psa)Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is a reliability assessment method which analyses engineering or management systems where safety is critical. The technique is used to determine the reliability of a component, or system of components, based on the pr
protonThe proton is one of the basic particles that make up an Atom . The proton is found in the Nucleus and has a positive electrical charge equal to the negative charge of an Electron . It has a mass similar to that of a Neutron . The number of protons in an
radiation protectionRadiation Protection is a general term applied to the profession / science related to protecting man and the environment from Radiation hazards. Strictly speaking it should represent all forms of radiation (e.g. Ionising and Non-Ionising ) but is mostly a
radiation weighting factorThe Radiation Weighting Factor is used to modify the Absorbed Dose (Gray ) by multiplying to obtain a quantity called the Equivalent Dose (Sv ). It is defined by the ICRP and used because some types of radiation, such as Alpha Particles , are more biologi
radioactive1) Radioactive can generally describe the property of a substance (or more accurately atomic nuclei) which are unstable and spontaneously Decay (disintegrate) with the release of energy, the energy being either Electromagnetic Radiation , particulate or both
2) радиоактивный
radioactive decayRadioactive decay describes the process where by Radioactive substances decay spontaneously with the release of energy in the form of Electromagnetic Radiation or particulate radiation. The rate of radioactive decay will depend on the Half-Life .
radionuclide1) A radionuclide is a type of Nuclide which is Radioactive and will undergo spontaneous Radioactive Decay.
2) any radioactive isotope (form) of any element.
radon (gas)Radon is a naturally occurring Radioactive gas which is derived from the Uranium and Thorium decay series. Radon (Rn-222) is a colourless, odourless, dense and chemically un-reactive substances and is the daughter of radium within the above described seri
rpa2000RPA2000 is a non profit making company set up by The Society for Radiological Protection; The Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine; the Institute of Radiation Protection and the Association of University Radiation Protection Officers (the Soci
scintillation1) With respect to Radiation Protection , scintillation is the process where by a material will emit light Photons when exposed to Ionising Radiation . The light photons can be measured with a photo-multiplier tube which will multiply the events to produce a
2) this term is used to describe the rapid changes in irradiance levels in a cross section of a laser beam produced by atmospheric turbulence.
shielding (radiation)Shieldling is a major protection principle for reducing exposure to Ionising Radiation (the two other related principles being Time and Distance ). See Lead for a shielding example.
sievertsThe Sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of Equivalent Dose & Effective dose . The equivalent older unit is the Rem where 1Sv = 100 rem.
specific activitySpecific activity is taken to be the Activity (Bq) per unit mass (grams),normally expressed as Bq/g. Specific activity is related to Half-Life such that the shorter the half life the higher the specific activity. For example, the specific activity of natu
stochastic1) With respect to Radiation Protection , stochastic effects (also referred to as Probabilistic ) represent radiation harm for which there is no threshold (see Linear Dose Response ) . Even the smallest quantity of Ionising Radiation exposure can be said to
2) стохастический (случайный или вероятностный характер процесса)
thermo luminescent dosimeter (tld)The thermo Luminescent Dosimeter (TLD) is a type of Passive Dosimeter which is used to measure exposure from Ionising Radiation . It is one of a number of methods used in the area of Dosimetry . The TLD consists of a crystal (e.g. CaSO4) which gives off l
tissue weighting factorThe tissue weighing factor is an ICRP multiplier use to determine the Effective dose from the Equivalent Dose in one or more organs or tissues. The factor takes account of the different sensitivities of different organs and tissues for induction of Probab
unsealed sourceWith respect to Radiation Protection , an unsealed source is is a source of Ionising Radiation in the form of Radioactive material which is not encapsulated or otherwise contained. The implication is that unsealed radioactive material can move around and
uranium1) Uranium is a heavy, metallic, naturally Radioactive Element of Atomic Number 92. It has two principle isotope of uranium-235 and uranium-238 ( and very small quantities of Uranium-234). The proportions of natural uranium by weight are about 0.01% Uranium-
2) уран
volume sourceWith respect to Radiation Protection , a volume source describes a source of Ionising Radiation which can physically be represented by a solid space. For example a drum containing radioactive waste can be considered a volume source. Sources of ionising ra
whole body monitorWhole body monitoring is a technique which uses large Scintillation detectors to measure Radionuclide accumulation (natural or intakes). The measurements take place in heavily shielded enclosures. The subject is usually placed on their back and the detect
yellow cake1) Processed crude Uranium oxide. This is the form in which most uranium is shipped around the world before processing into metallic metal and other forms.
2) урановый концентрат (продукт переработки урановой руды)