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Lens Glossary

1080i
    Similar to 1080p video, the i stands for interlaced, which differs from 1080p (progressive) video in that each frame contains two fields of data (but typically has double the frame rate). whil...
1080p
    Also known as full-hd, 1080p is a shorthand term for video recorded at 1920 lines of horizontal resolution and 1080 lines of vertical resolution, and optimized for 16:9 format playback. the p ...
2k
    2k is a 17:9 format, defined by the digital cinema initiatives, is a resolution of 2048 x 1080. it is most commonly found on professional cinema cameras and gear.
4k dci
    This is 4k as is defined by the digital cinema initiatives. it is a 17:9 format that is a resolution of 4096 x 2160. it is most commonly found on professional cinema cameras and gear.
4k uhd
    Ultra high definition 4k is a 16:9 format that is a resolution of 3840 x 2160. it is the most common type of 4k for consumer applications and distribution.
720p
    Shorthand term used to describe an hd signal format that has a 16:9 aspect ratio, 1280 x 720 resolution, and progressive frame rates. the major hdtv broadcasting standard is 60 (59.94) frames per ...
a-d converter
    The a-d converter converts the analog signal that is emitted from the image sensor into a digital signal.
absolute resolution
    Image resolution as expressed in horizontal and vertical pixel count (e.g., 1600 x 1200 pixels is the absolute resolution, and is also expressed as 2.1 megapixels (mp), having more than 2,000,000 ...
adobe rgb (adobe rgb 1998)
    A widely accepted color space that encompasses a wider range of color than the more commonly used srgb color space. adobe rgb is the preferred color space for images intended for prepress applicat...
af servo
    Also known as continuous focus, af servo is maintained by partially pressing the camera`s shutter release button, which enables you to maintain focus continuously on a moving subject as the subjec...
amoled (active-matrix organic light emitting diode)
    See oled
anti-shake (image stabilization)
    Also known as image stabilization (is), vibration reduction (vr), or simply image stabilization, anti-shake technology is a method of reducing the effects of camera movement on the photographic im...
aps-c (apsc)
    A term used to describe the size of the digital imaging sensors used in almost all compact dslrs. the name is derived from the aps (advanced photo system) film format that was introduced in 1996 f...
aps-h (apsh)
    Aps-h format imaging sensors (1.3x) are smaller than full-frame (24 x 36mm) imaging sensors but larger than aps-c (1.5x) imaging sensors. although currently only available in canons high-speed 1d...
aspherical surface
    An aspherical lens surface possesses more than one radius of curvature, which allows for the correction of lens aberrations that are common in simpler lens designs. sharper definition toward the e...
average metering
    Average metering takes all of the light values for a given scenehighlights, shadows, and mid-tonesand averages them together to establish an overall exposure. average metering is best used for f...
awb (auto white balance)
    An in-camera function that automatically adjusts the chromatic balance of the scene to a neutral setting, regardless of the color characteristics of the ambient light source. for more on this subj...
batch scan
    The ability to scan and process more than one image in a single action. batch scanning is only recommended if all of the images being scanned or corrected are equal in tonal values.
blocked shadows
    Term for lack of, or loss of, shadow detail in a photographic image, usually the result of underexposure or images captured by a lower resolution (and less dynamic) imaging sensor. although lost s...
bokeh
  1. An english transliteration of a japanese word that means haze or blur. pronounced boh-keh, it refers to the out-of-focus areas in a photograph with limited depth of field, particularly aro...
buffer memory
    A buffer memory is a temporary holding area for image data waiting to be processed in a camera. buffers enable a camera to continue capturing new image files without having to shut down while pr...
burst rate
    The number of consecutive images a digital camera can capture continuously before filling the memory buffer or memory card. to capture a burst of images, the camera must first be locked into burs...
card reader/writer
    A device that allows you to transfer data directly from a camera`s removable memory card to the computer, without being compelled to connect the camera to the computer.
cmos (complementary metal oxide semiconductor)
    A type of imaging sensor, cmos chips are less energy consuming than ccd-type sensors and are the dominant imaging technology used in dslrs. although once considered an inferior technology compared...
color calibration
    A process by which the image source (digital camera or scanner), monitor and output (printer) are calibrated to use the same or similar color standard, i.e., adobe rgb, srgb, etc). this ensures th...
color management
    A system of coordinating and calibrating the color spaces of digital cameras, scanners, monitors and printers to ensure that the color and tonal values of the image you see on the screen match tho...
compactflash card (cf)
    A popular flash memory device, which is available in a number of storage capacities. unlike earlier mechanically driven microdrives, newer cf cards are solid state, quite stable, and are capable o...
continuous focus
    See af servo
depth of field (dof)
    Literally, the measure of how much of the background and foreground area before and beyond your subject is in focus. depth of field can be increased by stopping the lens down to smaller apertures....
digital asset management (dam)
    This is the process of managing tasks and decision making regarding the import, export, annotation, cataloguing, storage, retrieval, and distribution of digital assets such as image files.
dpi (dots per inch)
    Printing term for resolution. also referred to as ppi (pixels per inch) when describing monitor resolution. the higher the ppi/dpi, the higher the resolution of the resulting image will be. for vi...
dslr (digital single lens reflex)
    A single lens reflex (slr) camera that captures digital images.
dye-sublimation printer
    Dye-sublimation printers, or "dye-sub" printers, are a type of digital photo printer. unlike inkjet printers, which spray fine droplets of ink on the print surface, dye-sub printers empl...
effective pixels
    Effective pixels is a measurement of the number of pixels that actively record the photographic image within a sensor. as an example, a camera might hold a sensor containing 10.5 megapixels, but t...
electronic viewfinder (evf)
    An electronic viewfinder digitally replicates the field of view of the area captured by the camera lens. while once considered a poor replacement for optical viewfinders, newer evfs containing a m...
exif (exchangeable image file)
    Commonly used header format for storing metadata (e.g. camera/lens/exposure information, time/date/, etc.) within digital image files.
f-stop (aperture)
    A term used to describe the aperture, or diaphragm opening of a lens. f-stops are defined numerically: f/1.4, f/5.6, f/22, etc. larger, or wider apertures, allow more light to enter the lens, whic...
field monitor
    Ranging in size from a few inches to about a foot diagonally, field monitors serve as a highly accurate alternative to the smaller viewing screens found on most video cameras and camcorders, assis...
flash sync
  1. Flash sync is used to describe either the connection point where you plug an external electronic flash into your camera (usually a pc port or the camera`s hot shoe), or the fastest shutter spe...
focal length magnifier
    Also known as magnification factor or crop factor, this term is used to describe the angle of view (aov) of a lens used on a dslr in relation to how it would appear on a full-frame 35mm camera. as...
follow focus
    A follow focus is a focus-control mechanism used in filmmaking (with film cameras) and in television production (with professional video cameras). there are now follow-focus units that have been d... enfoque continuo;
four thirds (4/3)
    A compact digital camera format designed around a 17.3 x 13mm imaging sensor, which is a quarter the size of a full-frame (35mm) imaging sensor. four thirds cameras and lenses are manufactured pri...
fringing
    Fringing, commonly associated with less expensive lenses, describes the bleeding of color along the edges of high-contrast portions of a digital image. fringing often shows up as cyan blurring o... ;
gps (global positioning system)
    A technology for establishing the location of earth-based objects, using coordinates obtained by orbiting satellites. these coordinates can be embedded into the headers of digital images as accura...
gui (graphical user interface)
    Pronounced "goo-ey." refers to a program interface that takes advantage of the computer`s graphics capabilities to make the program easier to use.
hardware calibration
    A method of calibrating a digital camera, scanner, printer or monitor using specialized hardware such as colorimeters, densitometers, and spectrometers.