Глоссарий

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Глоссарий терминов по видеокамерам

wb (white balance)
    In a color camera, white balance is the process of adjusting the values of its color differences signals so that a white object in a scene illuminated by a particular source of illumination is dis...
powerhad
    Is further improvement of the hyper had ccd technology, where the microscopic lenses focus more light onto the light sensors thus increased sensitivity and reduced smear.

partial enhance
    An advanced function of the digital signal processing (dsp) technology that allows a particular color to be selected and its hue, saturation and detail altered. this function gives the subject a p...
one-push wb (one-push white balance)
    Fixed white balance mode that can be automatically readjusted as required by the user (one-push wb trigger), assuming that a white object, in suitable lighting conditions and occupying more than h...
one-push af (one-push auto focus)
    Focus hold mode that can be automatically readjusted as required by the user (one-push af trigger) assuming that the required subject is within the focusing limits of the camera lens. glossary
ntsc (national television system committee)
    Color video standard, used mainly in the united states and japan. ntsc uses 525 scanning lines per picture, 30 pictures (frames) per second, each frame is made up of two sequential fields containi...
nf mount
    Type of camera mount in which there is 12 mm clearance between the lens rear mounting surface and the camera’s ccd.

nd filter (neutral density filter)
    A grey filter added in front of a lens to reduce the amount of incoming light into the camera lens. it has no influence on color.

mtf (modulation transfer function)
    Defines the resolution capability of a lens. most lenses exhibit their best mtf when operated in the middle of their iris aperture range.

mod (minimum object distance)
    A lens parameter that defines the minimum distance from a camera lens to the point where an object can still be in focus.

md (motion detector)
    Camera feature where a reference field is compared with current fields. if a difference is detected, the camera outputs a pulse. an ideal feature for security application.

restart / reset
    Special mode in which the ccd readout cycle is stopped and restarted in synchronization with an external event. in the stop mode, the ccd still accumulates picture information. rs-232c serial data...
s/n (signal to noise ratio)
    The ratio, usually expressed in db (decibels), between the normal signal output and the noise level within an electronic signal.

scalable scanning
    Capability of a camera to output a picture corresponding to an user defined sub-zone of the sensor. applied in ieee 1394 digital cameras featuring the format_7 output option (xcd-x700, xcd-sx900)....
v-lock sync
    See genlock. vs (video + sync) the composite monochrome video signal commonly used as the genlock signal in b/w systems.

vd (vertical drive)
    Signal used to synchronize the field rate of a camera to an external source. mostly used in b/w together with hd (horizontal drive).

ultra mount
    Type of camera mount in which there is 6.7 mm clearance between the lens rear mounting surface and the camera’s ccd. vbs (video + burst + sync) the composite video signal, including color informat...
u and v
    The names given to the two video color difference signals (r-y and b-y) in their coded form in the pal or ntsc color systems. see also y/r-y/b-y.

sync (synchronization)
    When synchronized, the horizontal and vertical timing of a camera output are locked to an external signal coming, for example, from another camera. picture outputs from both sources are then preci...
strobe synchronization
    This function is designed to capture fast moving, full frame images by firing a strobe light in a dark lighting condition. the camera synchronizes the timing of the external trigger and can output...
square pixel
    Used to qualify a ccd sensor where the centers of the pixels are equally spaced horizontally and vertically. pictures captured from this type of non-square pixel sensor need to be software correct...
slow shutter
    Shutter mode with an integration time longer than 1/50 s (pal) or 1/60 s (ntsc). like long-term integration, the slow shutter function increases camera sensitivity when shooting slow-moving or fix...
s-donpisha
    Asynchronous shutter mode used with external hd/vd sync. ccd starts to accumulate electrons when the external trigger pulse is received and stops when the vd pulse is received. therefore the accum...
screen mode
    Partial see-through mode on hmd allowing the user to view the surrounding environment by adjusting the transparency of the screen in the area only around the picture.

lux (lux)
    The si measurement of light intensity taken at the surface which the light source is illuminating. the measure of the total lumens falling upon a unit of area. 1 lumen per square meter. one foot-c...
long-term integration
    Special camera mode similar to the ‘b’ setting of a photographic camera shutter. the ccd integrates over a long (userdefined) period, providing very high sensitivity. object must be stationary, ex...
it (interline transfer)
    In it ccd technology, the charges on exposed pixels are transferred to light-shielded vertical readout zones embedded in the sensitive area. it devices are simpler to manufacture and are therefore...
dsp (digital signal processing)
    Inside a camera, sensor signals must be processed in several steps before they can be displayed / transmitted. typical processing steps are amplification, gamma correction, black level correction,...
donpisha
    Means immediate in japanese. ccd sensor shuttering technology for asynchronous shooting of fast moving objects without a time delay.

chu (camera head unit)
    In a remote head camera system, the chu is a small unit that only includes the sensor, its optical interface, the cable coupling to a ccu and the minimum amount of electronic circuitry.

ccu (camera control unit)
    The ccu provides a means of controlling a remote camera. so that the remote camera can be as small and light as possible, the ccu also includes all electronic circuits that do not have to be fitte...
ccd iris
    Special operating mode of the electronic shutter of a ccd camera. the shutter timing is automatically adjusted to maintain the same video output level, irrespective of the scene illumination. can ...
black stretch / black compress control
    A function of digital signal processing technology that enables the contrast of the black area of an image to be variable adjusted. the black stretch function emphasizes contrast in the dark areas...
bayonet mount
    Type of camera mount in which there is 38 mm or 48 mm clearance between the lens rear mounting surface and the camera’s ccd.

atw (auto tracking white balance)
    In atw mode, white balance is continuously being adjusted according to the color temperature of the scene illumination.

asynchronous transmission mode
    Ieee 1394 data transmission mode without a guaranteed data delivery time. used in ieee 1394 cameras for control functions and reports.

af (autofocus)
    Available in cameras equipped with motorized focus, this feature provides automatic adjustment of the focus. af operates by varying the focus to maximize the high frequency content of the central ...
dynalatitude process
    A unique feature function available when using digital signal processing (dsp) technology. it manages the contrast of each pixel according to a histogram of video signal level distribution in orde...
e-donpisha
    Enhanced asynchronous shutter. available with external and internal synchronization modes. the camera ccd starts to accumulate electrons on receipt of an external trigger pulse. shutter speed is s...
e-donpisha - ii
    Asynchronous shutter mode. available in external sync mode only. timing of accumulation and shutter speed are controlled by the external trigger signal. shutter speed is controlled by the width of...
isochronous transmission mode
    Ieee 1394 data transmission mode featuring guaranteed transmission timing and bandwidth. appropriate for just-in-time transmission of video and audio and computer data.

interval af
    Af (auto focus) mode is periodically switched on, then off (fixed focus). the duration of the on and off intervals is separately adjustable.

icr (ir cut removable)
    This function is useful in low light environments. with the ir cut filter removed, the sensitivity of the camera to ir illumination is increased. ieee 1394 a digital networked serial interface for...
hyper had
    A derivative of the had sensor that incorporates microscopic lenses mounted over each sensing pixel. sensors have no perceptible smear and are nearly twice as sensitive as had sensors.

high rate scanning
    Capability of a camera to output less than its maximum number of horizontal lines, but at a higher rate. unlike partial scanning, the lines output in high rate scanning are symmetrical about the o...
hd (horizontal drive)
    Signal used to synchronize the line scan rate of the camera to an external source. mostly used in b/w applications together with vd.

had (hole accumulated diode)
    Ccd technology with improved performance in spectral response, vertical smear and sensitivity. the had sensor also introduced a higher pixel count and electronic shuttering capability.

field / frame integration
    Two different pixel readout techniques in ccds designed for interlaced output. refers to the total integration time, field duration (16.6 ms ntsc/eia or 20 ms pal/ccir) or frame duration (33.3 ms ...
exwave had technology
    Technology with a nearly gapless ocl (on-chip-lens) located over each pixel of the ccd resulting in more than twice the sensitivity and 1/50 the smear compared to hyper had technology. f stop, f n...
eia (electronics industries association)
    B/w video standard with 525 lines / frame, 2 interlaced fields / frame, 30 frames / second. monochrome version of ntsc video signal. also referred to as rs-170. glossary of camera terminology glos...