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white light1) Theoretically, light that emits all wavelengths of the visible spectrum at uniform intensity. In reality, most light sources cannot achieve such perfection.
2) белый огонь
3) a mixture of colors of visible light that appears white to the eye. in theory, a mixture of three colors is sufficient to produce white light
4) light that contains most of the wavelengths in the visible spectrum, such as light from the sun or from a spotlight. white light is incoherent, while laser light is coherent. a white light transmission hologram, or rainbow hologram, is one which can be displayed using ordinary white light. early holograms required viewing with coherent laser light.
5) the 1,000 or so colors humans who are not color-blind can discern have their origin in white light. the hues we attribute to any object depend upon how the surface reflects and absorbs light and how the eye interprets it. see: spectrum and absorption.
nanometer (nm)1) Unit of length equal to a 10-9 meter, or one millionth of a millimeter. Wavelengths are measured in nanometers.
2) one billionth of a meter, or 10–9 meters. most common unit of measurement for light
3) a unit of length in the international system of units (si) equal to one billionth of a meter. is the usual measure of light wavelengths. visible light ranges from about 400 nm in the purple to about 700 nm in the deep red.
munsell color chartsA three dimensional color system developed by Albert Munsell that is based on the attributes Munsell Hue, Munsell Value, and Munsell Chroma.
monitor rgbSame as RGB; monitor RGB simply refers specifically to the color space that can be achieved by a particular monitor using combinations of red, green, and blue light.
magentaOne of the process ink colors for printing. Pure magenta is the "greenless" color; it absorbs all wavelengths of green from light and reflects all red and blue wavelengths.
kelvin (k)Unit of measurement for color temperature. The Kelvin scale starts from absolute zero, which is -273° Celsius.
illuminants d (cie)CIE Standard Illuminants for daylight, based on actual spectral measurements of daylight. D65 with a correlated color temperature of 6504(K is most commonly used. Others include D50, D55, and D75.
illuminant c (cie)CIE Standard Illuminant for tungsten illumination that simulates average daylight, bluish in color, with a correlated color temperature of 6774°K.
illuminant a (cie)CIE Standard Illuminant for incandescent illumination, yellow-orange in color, with a correlated color temperature of 2856°K.
hifi printingProcess printing that expands the conventional four color process gamut using additional, special ink colors.
overprint1) On a press sheet color bar, overprints are color patches were two process inks have been printed, one atop the other. Checking the density of these patches allows press operators determine trap value. The term Overprint also applies to any object printed
2) наложение (цветов). Один из вариантов размещения одного объекта поверх другого. При наложении цвета верхнего объекта запечатывают цвета нижнего. При цветоделении на пленках будут присутствовать цвета обоих объектов. Как правило, в программах верстки налож
phosphorsMaterials that emit light when irradiated by cathode rays, or when placed in an electric field. The quantity of visible light is proportional to the amount of excitation energy present.
viewing boothAn enclosed area with controlled lighting that is used in graphic arts studios, service bureaus, and printing companies as a stable environment for evaluating proofs and press sheets. Viewing booths are generally illuminated using graphic arts industry-st
tri-stimulus dataThe three tri-stimulus values that combine to define or generate a specific color, such as R255/G255, B 0. Tri-stimulus data does not completely describe a color, the illuminant must also be defined. Also, in device dependent color models such as RGB, the
tri-stimulusA method for communicating or generating a color using three stimuli; either additive or subtractive colorants (such as RGB or CMY), or three attributes (such as lightness, chroma, and hue.)
tranmissive objectAn object that allows light to pass through from one side to the other. The color of a transmissive object results from the manipulation of wavelengths of light as they pass through.
spectral curveA color's "fingerprint" (a visual representation of a color's spectral data. A spectral curve is plotted on a grid comprised of a vertical axis); and a horizontal axis (the visible spectrum of wavelengths. The percentage of reflected light is pl
reflective objectA solid object that returns some or all of the wavelengths of emitted light that strike its surface. A reflective object that returns 100% of all light is called a perfect diffuser--a perfectly white surface.
process controlUsing densitometric and colorimetric measurement data from press sheet color bars to monitor press performance throughout the press run. Data is analyzed in relation to established control limits. See Control Limits.
prism1) Triangular shaped glass or other transparent material. When light is passed through a prism, its wavelengths refract into a rainbow of colors. This demonstrates that light is composed of color and indicates the arrangement of colors in the visible spectru
2) program reliability information system for
3) parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model
primary colors1) The dominant regions of the visible spectrum--red, green, and blue--and their opposite colors cyan, magenta, and yellow. See Additive Primaries. Subtractive Primaries.
2) основные цвета. Основные цвета, на которых базируются цветовые модели. В аддитивной RGB-модели С красный, зеленый и синий, а в субтрактивной CMY-модели - голубой, пурпурный и желтый. Другой термин color primaries
3) Three colors wherein no mixture of any two can produce the third. In color television these are the additive primary colors red, blue and green.
4) the additive colors: red, blue, and green; subtractive colors: yellow, magenta, and cyan.
photoreceptorThe cone and rod shaped neurons that cover the retina of the eye. photoreceptors are excited by visible wavelengths, then send signals to the brain where the sensation of color is perceived.
photoelectricPertaining to the electrical effects of light or other radiation; for example, emissions of electrons.
four color processDepositing combinations of the subtractive primaries cyan, magenta, yellow, and black on paper to achieve. These colorants are deposited as dots of different sizes, shapes, and angles to create the illusion of different colors. See CMY, Subtractive Primar
fluorescent lampA lass tube filled with mercury gas and coated on its inner surface with phosphors. When the gas is charged with an electrical current, radiation is produced which in turn energizes the phosphors, causing the phosphors to glow.
emissive objectAn object that emits light Usually some sort of chemical reaction, such as the burning gasses of the sun or the heated filament of a light bulb.
cmyThe subtractive primaries cyan, magenta, and yellow. See Subtractive Primaries.
cmc (color measurement committee)Of the Society of Dyes and Colorists in Great Britain. Developed a more logical, ellipse-based equation for computing (E values as an alternative to the rectangular coordinates of the CIELAB color space.)
cie xyz chromaticity coordinatesPlotted to for the xyY chromaticity diagram which visually represents the gamut of vision for the 1931 CIE 2° Standard Observer. Calculated from the CIE XYZ Tristimulus Values.
cie xy chromaticity diagramA two-dimensional graph of the chromaticity coordinates, x as the abscissa and as the ordinate, which shows the spectrum locus (chromaticity coordinates of monachromatic light, 380-770nm). It has many useful properties for comparing colors of both luminou
cie tristimulus valuesAmounts (in percentages)O of the three components necessary in a three-color additive mixture required for matching a color
cie standard observerA hypothetical observer having the tristimulus color mixture data recommended in 1931 by the CIE for a 2° viewing angle. A supplementary observer for a larger angle of 10° was adopted in 1964. If not specified, the 2° Standard Observer should be assumed.
cie standard illuminantsKnown spectral data established by the CIE for four different types of light sources. When using tristimulus data to describe a color, the illuminant must also be defined. These standard illuminants are used in place of actual measurements of the light so
cie (commission international de l'eclairage)A French name that translates to International Commission on Illumination, the main international organization concerned with color and color measurement.
additive primariesRed, green and blue light.
color matching functionsRelative amounts of three additive primaries required to match each wavelength of light. The term is generally used to refer to the CIE Standard Observer color matching functions designated. See CIE Standard Observer.
color separation1) The conversion of the red green, and blue color information used in a computer into cyan, magenta, yellow, and black channels that are used to make printing plates.
2) цветоделение. Операция разделения цвета на четыре основных составляющих (голубой, пурпурный, желтый и черный) в процессе подготовки оригиналов к цветной печати. Процесс разделения цветного файла на составные части, которые будут печататься с отдельных печ
electromagnetic spectrum1) The massive band of electromagnetic waves that pass through the air in different sizes, as measured by wavelength. Different wavelengths have different properties, but most are invisible, and some completely undetectable, to human beings. Only wavelengths
2) The electromagnetic spectrum covers a wide range of wavelengths and Photon energies. It ranges from Gamma Rays at one end (High Frequency, High Energy and Low Wave Length) to radio waves at the other (Low Frequency, Low Energy and Long Wave Length).For Io
3) the frequency range of electromagnetic radiation that includes radio waves, light and x-rays. at the low frequency end are sub-audible frequencies (e.g., 10 hz) and at the other end, extremely high frequencies (e.g., x-rays, cosmic rays).
4) the range of frequencies and wavelengths emitted by atomic systems. the total spectrum includes radio waves as well as short cosmic rays. frequencies cover a range from 1 hz to perhaps as high as 1020 hz.
5) the entire range of radient energy, including x-ray, visible light, infrared, radiation, radio waves, etc.
device profilerDevice specific color information that is a characterization of a device's color rendering and reproduction capabilities. Monitor profiles, scanner profiles, and printer profiles are utilized in a color management system such as Apple ColorSync to help th
device independentDescribes a color space that can be defined using the full gamut of human vision, as defined by a standard observer, independent of the color rendering capabilities of any specific device.
device dependentDescribes a color space that can re defined only by using information on the color rendering capabilities of a specific device. For example, the RGB color space must be generated by a monitor, a device which has specific capabilities and limitations for a
delta error(e)In color tolerencing, the symbol (E is used to express Delta Error, the total color difference computed using a color difference equation.
cyanOne of the process ink colors for printing. Pure cyan is the "redless" color; it absorbs all red wavelengths of light and reflects all blue and green wavelengths.
control limits1) The amount of acceptable variation in press capabilities over the course of a press run.
2) "Limits on a control chart which are used as criteria for signalling the need for action, or for judging whether a set of data does or does not indicate a `state of control`" [ASQ]. Used here to refer to the defined limits or ranges of results expected due to the random error of the method, and beyond which some course of action should be taken. It is common in clinical laboratories to use Levey-Jennings control charts with limits set as either the mean plus or minus 2 standard deviations, or the mean plus or minus 3 standard deviations.
colorimetricOf or relating to values giving the amounts of three colored lights or receptors, red, green and blue.
colorantsMaterials used to create colors, dyes, pigments, toners, phosphors.
color wheelThe visible spectrum's continuum of colors arranged into a circle, where complementary colors such as red and green are located directly across from each other.
color specificationTristimulus values, chromaticity coordinates and luminance value, or other color-scale values, used to designate a color numerically in a specified color system.
absorb/absorptionDissipation of the energy of electromagnetic waves into other forms as a result of its interaction with matter, a decrease in directional transmittance of incident radiation, resulting in a modification or conversion of the absorbed energy.