Глоссарий

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24 февраля, 2017

"Бисерче вълшебно" 2017

24 февраля, 2017

Вестник "Стандарт"

24 февраля, 2017

В России учредят премию за сохранение языкового многообразия






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Soccer glossary

2-on-1 breaka type of break with 2 attacking players against 1 defensive player.
3-on-1 breaka type of break with 3 attacking players against only 1 defensive player.
3-on-2 breaka type of break with 3 attacking players against 2 defensive players.
advantage rulea clause in the rules that directs the referee to refrain from stopping play for a foul if a stoppage would benefit the team that committed the violation.
advantagessituations where a team has possession of the ball and outnumbers the opposition near the opposing goal.
american footballa term used by non-americans to distinguish the popular u.s. sport of football from soccer which they also call football.
apslamerican professional soccer league — the nation`s only outdoor professional soccer league since 1991, consisting of 8 teams in the u.s. and canada (expanding to 12 by 1995).
attacking teamthe team that has possession of the ball.
back tacklean attempt by a defender to take the ball away from a ball carrier by swinging the defender`s leg in front of the ball from behind.
ball carriera player that has possession of the ball.
banana kicka type of kick that gives the ball a curved trajectory; used to get the ball around an obstacle such as a goaltender or defender.
behind the defenderthe area between a defender and his goal.
bicycle kickwhen a player kicks the ball in mid-air backwards and over his own head, usually making contact above waist level; an acrobatic shot.
breakawaywhen an attacker with the ball approaches the goal undefended; this exciting play pits a sole attacker against the goalkeeper in a one-on-one showdown.
bundesligathe german professional soccer league.
carrying the balla foul called on a goalkeeper when he takes more than 4 steps while holding or bouncing the ball.
center circlea circular marking with a 10-yard radius in the center of the field from which kickoffs are taken to start or restart the game.
chip passa pass lofted into the air from a player to a teammate; used primarily to evade a defender by kicking the ball over his head.
chip shota kick lofted into the air to try to sail the ball over the goalkeeper`s head and still make it under the crossbar into the goal.
cleatsthe metal, plastic or rubber points in the bottom of a soccer shoe used to provide a player with traction; term also used to refer to the shoes themselves.
concacafthe confederation norte-centroamericana y del caribe de footbal — the regional organization of north american and central american soccer under which world cup qualifying matches are played; member countries include the u.s., canada, mexico, and central american and caribbean countries.
consolation matcha tournament game played between the losers of the 2 semifinal matches to determine the third-place team.
corner areasee corner arc.
corner flagthe flag located at each of the 4 corners of the field, inside the corner area.
corner kicka type of restart where the ball is kicked from the corner arc in an attempt to score; awarded to an attacking team when the ball crosses the goal line last touched by the defending team.
counterattackan attack launched by a defending team soon after it regains possession of the ball.
dangerous playwhen a player attempts a play that the referee considers dangerous to that player or others, such as trying to kick the ball out of the goalie`s hands, even if no contact is made.
defendersthe players on the team that does not have possession of the ball.
defending teamthe team that does not have possession of the ball.
defensementhe 3 or 4 players on a team whose primary task is to stop the opposition from scoring; also called fullbacks.
defensive midfielderthe player positioned just in front of his team`s defense; he is often assigned to mark the opposition`s best offensive player; also called the midfield anchor.
defensive pressurewhen one or more defenders closely mark a ball carrier to harass him into losing the ball.
direct free kicka kick awarded to a player for a serious foul committed by the opposition; the player kicks a stationary ball with no opposing players within 10 yards of him; a goal can be scored directly from this kick without the ball touching another player.
diving headera ball struck near ground level by the head of a diving player.
dribblingthe basic skill of advancing the ball with the feet while controlling it.
drop balla method of restarting a game where the referee drops the ball between 2 players facing each other.
drop kickwhen a goalie drops the ball from his hands and kicks it just after it hits the ground.
english football associationan association of english soccer teams founded in 1863 to set soccer rules.
fake or feinta move by a player meant to deceive an opposing player; used by a ball carrier to make a defender think the ball carrier is going to dribble, pass or shoot in a certain direction when he is not.
far postthe goalpost furthest from the ball.
fifafederation internationale de football association — the official governing body of international soccer since 1904 which established the world cup tournament; helps set and revise rules of the game, called the 17 laws.
flick headera player`s use of his head to deflect the ball.
forward linethe 3 or 4 forwards who work together to try and score goals; consists of two wingers and 1 or 2 strikers.
forward pass1) a pass made towards the opposition`s goal.
2) прямой расчет (метод вычисления сроков свершения события, начала или окончания работы с заданной точки сетевого графика в направлении конечного события)
free kicka kick awarded to a player for a foul committed by the opposition; the player kicks a stationary ball without any opposing players within 10 yards of him.
fullbackssee defensemen.
goal linethe field boundary running along its width at each end; also called the end line; runs right across the front of the goal; the line which a ball must completely cross for a goal to be scored.
goalmouththe front opening to each goal.
hackingkicking an opponent`s legs.
halfbacksee midfielder.
halftimethe intermission between the 2 periods or halves of a game.
halvessee periods.
hand balla foul where a player touches the ball with his hand or arm; the opposing team is awarded a direct free kick.
ifabinternational football association board — the organization consisting of 4 british soccer organizations and fifa that approves all changes in the official international rules of soccer called the 17 laws.
indirect free kicka kick awarded to a player for a less-serious foul committed by the opposition; the player kicks a stationary ball without any opposing players within 10 yards of him; a goal can only be scored on this kick after the ball has touched another player.
instep drivea straight shot taken with the instep of a player`s foot; usually the most powerful and accurate of shots.
jugglingkeeping a ball in the air with any part of the body besides the hands or arms; used for practice and developing coordination.
jules rimet trophythe trophy given to the world cup winner between 1930 and 1970, after which it was permanently retired.
laws of the gamethe 17 main rules for soccer established by fifa.
lead passa pass sent ahead of a moving teammate to arrive at a location at the same time he does.
linesmenthe 2 officials who assist the referee in making his decisions; they monitor the sidelines and goal lines to determine when a ball goes out of bounds and they carry a flag to signal their observations.
linkmensee midfielders.
midfieldthe region of the field near the midfield line; the area controlled by the midfielders.
naslnorth american soccer league — an outdoor league formed in the u.s. in 1967 that attracted great international players including pele and huge audiences to the u.s. in the 1970s; folded in 1985.
near postthe goalpost closest to the ball.
offensive teamsee attacking team.
offsidea violation called when a player in an offside position receives a pass from a teammate; an indirect free kick is awarded to the non-offending team.
offside positionan attacking player positioned so that fewer than 2 opposing defensive players (usually the goalie and 1 other defender) are between him and the goal he is attacking; a player is not offside if he is exactly even with one or both of these defensive players.
on offensedescribes a team in possession of the ball.
on-sidethe opposite of offside.
outlet passeswhen a goaltender or defender passes the ball from close to his own goal toward the other team`s goal; used to start a counterattack.
penalty arca circular arc whose center is the penalty spot and extends from the top of the penalty area; designates an area that opposing players are not allowed to enter prior to a penalty kick.
penalty shota kick taken from the penalty spot by a player against the opposing goalie without any players closer than 10 yards away; awarded for the most severe rule violations and those committed by the defense within its own penalty area; also taken in a tiebreaker to decide a match.
penalty spotthe small circular spot located 12 yards in front of the center of the goal line from which all penalty kicks are taken; positioned at the center of the penalty arc.
periodsthe segments of time into which a game is divided; a regulation game played by adults consists of two 45-minutes halves.
play ona term used by referees to indicate that no foul or stoppage is to be called; used by referees when applying the advantage rule.
playoffa tournament that takes place after a season`s schedule has been completed; used to determine a champion.
push passwhen a player pushes the ball with the inside of his foot to a teammate.
red carda playing card-sized card that a referee holds up to signal a player`s removal from the game; the player`s team must play the rest of the game shorthanded; presented for violent behavior or multiple rule infractions (two yellow cards = one red card).
regular seasonthe schedule of games set before the season; consists of all games played before a playoff or tournament is held.
regulation gametwo completed periods of a game, prior to any overtime or tiebreaker.
scoring opportunitya situation where a team stands a good chance of scoring a goal.
shorthandeda team playing with less than its full complement of 11 players.
shoulder chargeminimal shoulder-to-shoulder contact by a defender against a ball carrier; the only contact allowed by the rules unless a defender touches the ball first.
side tacklean attempt by a defender to redirect the ball slightly with his foot away from a ball carrier running in the same direction.
sideline or touchlinea line that runs along the length of the field on each side.
single eliminationa type of tournament where a single loss eliminates a team from the tournament.
sliding tacklean attempt by a defender to take the ball away from a ball carrier by sliding on the ground feet-first into the ball.
sweeperthe defender that plays closest to his own goal behind the rest of the defenders; a team`s last line of defense in front of the goalkeeper.
the drawthe selection of world cup teams to place them into playing groups for the tournament and the event surrounding this selection.
thigh trapwhen a player uses his thigh to slow down and control a ball in the air.
tiebreakera way to choose the winner of a match when teams are tied after overtime; in fifa tournament play, a series of penalty kicks are taken by players from both teams, and the team that scores on more of them is declared the winner.
touchlinesee sideline.
wall passa pass by a ball carrier who sends the ball to a teammate, then runs behind his own defender and quickly receives a pass back; used to get a player past his defender without having to dribble by him; same as the "give-and-go" in basketball.
wings or wingersthe outside forwards who play to the sides of the strikers and whose primary task is to provide them with accurate crossing passes so they can shoot at the goal; often the fastest players and best dribblers on a team.
yellow carda playing card-sized card that a referee holds up to warn a player for dangerous or unsportsmanlike behavior; also called a caution; 2 yellow cards in one game earns a player an automatic red card, signaling his removal from the game.