16 , 2017

Crowdtranslation

26 , 2017

Entry of a foreign company into the Russian market

11 , 2017

The cheap translation






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acid-free
    The term refers to paper, which is free from the damaging level of low ph. most of the papers used in printmaking are normally acid-free.
aquatint
  1. Aquatint is an etching process concerned with areas of tone rather than line. for this technique, the plate is covered with a ground or resin that is granular rather than solid (as in etching)... aguatinta;
artists proofs
    Artists proofs. formerly, when an artist was commissioned to execute a print, he was provided with lodging and living expenses, a printing studio and workmen, supplies and paper. the artist was g...
brayer
    A roller used to apply ink on a block or plate. this is made up of gelatin compound or a hard rubber.
rodillo .;
chiaroscuro woodcuts
    Chiaroscuro woodcuts involve the use of several blocks, often one for each color to be used and sometimes one to outline the composition of the image. the print is made by printing a sheet of pape...
cliche-verre
    Cliche-verre, or glass print, is different from every other print technique in that the image on the paper is not produced with ink but with light-sensitive chemicals. the basic cliche-verre is ma...
collagraph
    Collagraph takes its name from the french colle, meaning glue, and the greek graphos, meaning drawing. an image is composed from a variety of textured materials glued onto a solid base such as car...
color woodcuts
    Color woodcuts, a product of the nineteenth century in the west, use the same techniques as chiaroscuro but often carried to enormous complexity of multiple blocks and over-lapping, and they commo...
counterproof
    A counterproof is made by placing a dampened sheet of paper on top of a pastel or charcoal drawing and applying pressure to transfer the image to the dampened paper.
dabber
  1. An instrument used for grinding pigments on an etching plate. the bottom of the dabber is covered with thick pad of wool surrounded by leather.

  2. A soft brush used to apply varnishes....
digital prints
    Digital prints. artists who create their works digitally or use digital manipulation in order to create a print may print them from a computer using a large-scale ink jet printer. the ink is dispe...
dry-point
    Drawing or painting directly on the plates creates a rough burr along the furrow. the result of the dry point is the soft lines with an engraving.
drypoint
    Drypoint prints are created by scratching a drawing into a metal plate with a needle or other sharp tool. this technique allows the greatest freedom of line, from the most delicate hairline to the...
dutch mordant
    This is used as an alternative to nitric acid in etching. this is a mixture of potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid.
engraving
  1. Engraving is a process in which a plate is marked or incised with a tool called a burin. a burn works on a copper plate like a plow on a field. as it is moved across the plate, copper shavings... grabado;
flat bed
    The term used in print making to identify techniques such as lithography and serigraphy.
flock print
    In this method, the block is surfaced with glue and finely chopped textile material is sprinkled on the glue. the result of this method is a soft print with indistinct outlines.
glyptography
    This is an electrotype method in which a copy of an engraved plate is used for letterpress printing.
hors commerce proof
    Hors commerce proof. impressions annotated h.c. are supposedly not for sale. these proofs started to appear on the market as extensions of editions being printed in the late 1960s. they may d...
linocuts
    Linocuts are printed from a linoleum block, usually backed with wood for reinforcement. the linoleum is handled in exactly the same way as a wood block but, since it does not have a wood grain, th...
linoleum cut
    This technique is similar to wood cut, but linoleum is used instead of wood.
mezzotint
    Mezzotint is a technique of engraving areas of tone rather than lines. in this method, the entire surface of the plate is roughed by a spiked tool called a rocker so that, if inked, at that point,... mediatinta .; mezzotinta .;
monoprint
    A monoprint is made by taking an already etched and inked plate and adding to the composition by manipulating additional ink on the surface of the plate. this produces an impression different in a...
numbering
  1. Numbering. the numbering of individual impressions of prints can be found as early as the late nineteenth century. however, it did not become standard practice until the mid 1960s. today, all...
offset-lithography
    In this type of printing method, indirect image is transferred from photochemical plates. the plate transfers ink to a cylinder, which offsets theink on the paper.
photo-lithograph
    A photo-lithograph is generally a reproduction and not an original print. color lithographs are made through the use of several stones or plates to separate the colors and printing the same sheet ...
plate-mark
    Plate- mark is an impression created on the paper by the plate, when the paper passes through the press.
pochoir
    Pochoir is a direct method of hand coloring through a stencil. the stencil itself is usually knife cut from thin-coated paper, paperboard, plastic or metal and the ink or paint is applied with a b...
posthumous edition
    Posthumous edition. this one is printed from a matrix after the death of the artist. it has usually been authorized by the artists heirs or is the product of a publisher who previously purchased ...
printers proof
    Printers proof. a complimentary proof given to the printer. there can be from one to several of these proofs, depending upon the number of printers involved and the generosity of the artist.
reduction printing
    This type of printing is made for registration purposes. here, largest color areas are printed first, followed by the next size in sequence.
positivado por reducción .; tiraje por reducción .;
restrikes
    Restrikes. theoretically, these are any printings made after the first edition. a more useful definition would define restrikes as later impressions not authorized by the author or his heirs, as o...
screenprinting
    Screenprinting (serigraphy, silk screen) is a versatile printing process based on the stencil principle. it was made famous in the 1960s when artists such as andy warhol exploited its bold, commer...
second edition
    Second edition. a second edition is a later printing, usually authorized by the artist or by his heirs, from the original matrix, after an edition of declared number has already been printed. it s...
serigraph
    This is a stencil printing process in which the paint is forced through the silk screen on to the textile or paper.
signatures
    Signatures. the very earliest prints were not signed at all, although by the later part of the fifteenth century many artists indicated their authorship of a print by incorporating a signature or ...
spitbite aquatint
    Spitbite aquatint involves painting strong acid directly onto the aquatint ground of a prepared plate. depending upon the time the acid is left on the plate, light to dark tones can be achieved. t...