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England from the other shore






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offset-lithographyIn this type of printing method, indirect image is transferred from photochemical plates. The plate transfers ink to a cylinder, which offsets theink on the paper.
brayerA roller used to apply ink on a block or plate. This is made up of gelatin compound or a hard rubber.
acid-freeThe term refers to paper, which is free from the damaging level of low pH. Most of the papers used in printmaking are normally acid-free.
woodcutWoodcut is the earliest and most enduring, in that it is still practiced, of all print techniques. While woodcuts were first seen in ninth-century China, Western artists have made woodcut prints since...
wood engravingsWood Engravings are made from the end-grain surface of very hard wood, usually boxwood, as opposed to woodcuts, which are made from side-grain planks of wood neither so hard nor so expensive. Rather t...
trial proofTrial Proof. An impression pulled before the edition to see what the print looks like at that stage of development, after which the artist may go back to the matrix and change it. There can be any num...
spitbite aquatintSpitbite Aquatint involves painting strong acid directly onto the aquatint ground of a prepared plate. Depending upon the time the acid is left on the plate, light to dark tones can be achieved. To co...
linoleum cutThis technique is similar to wood cut, but linoleum is used instead of wood.
glyptographyThis is an electrotype method in which a copy of an engraved plate is used for letterpress printing.
flock printIn this method, the block is surfaced with glue and finely chopped textile material is sprinkled on the glue. The result of this method is a soft print with indistinct outlines.
flat bedThe term used in print making to identify techniques such as lithography and serigraphy.
dutch mordantThis is used as an alternative to nitric acid in etching. This is a mixture of potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid.
dry-pointDrawing or painting directly on the plates creates a rough burr along the furrow. The result of the dry point is the soft lines with an engraving.
dabberAn instrument used for grinding pigments on an etching plate. The bottom of the dabber is covered with thick pad of wool surrounded by leather.
signaturesSignatures. The very earliest prints were not signed at all, although by the later part of the fifteenth century many artists indicated their authorship of a print by incorporating a signature or mono...
second editionSecond edition. A second edition is a later printing, usually authorized by the artist or by his heirs, from the original matrix, after an edition of declared number has already been printed. It shoul...
screenprintingScreenprinting (serigraphy, silk screen) is a versatile printing process based on the stencil principle. It was made famous in the 1960s when artists such as Andy Warhol exploited its bold, commercial...
drypointDrypoint prints are created by scratching a drawing into a metal plate with a needle or other sharp tool. This technique allows the greatest freedom of line, from the most delicate hairline to the hea...
digital printsDigital Prints. Artists who create their works digitally or use digital manipulation in order to create a print may print them from a computer using a large-scale ink jet printer. The ink is dispersed...
counterproofA Counterproof is made by placing a dampened sheet of paper on top of a pastel or charcoal drawing and applying pressure to transfer the image to the dampened paper.
color woodcutsColor Woodcuts, a product of the nineteenth century in the West, use the same techniques as chiaroscuro but often carried to enormous complexity of multiple blocks and over-lapping, and they commonly ...
collagraphCollagraph takes its name from the French colle, meaning glue, and the Greek graphos, meaning drawing. An image is composed from a variety of textured materials glued onto a solid base such as cardboa...
cliche-verreCliche-Verre, or glass print, is different from every other print technique in that the image on the paper is not produced with ink but with light-sensitive chemicals. The basic cliche-verre is made b...
chiaroscuro woodcutsChiaroscuro Woodcuts involve the use of several blocks, often one for each color to be used and sometimes one to outline the composition of the image. The print is made by printing a sheet of paper wi...
artists proofsArtists Proofs. Formerly, when an artist was commissioned to execute a print, he was provided with lodging and living expenses, a printing studio and workmen, supplies and paper. The artist was given...
engraving1) Engraving is a process in which a plate is marked or incised with a tool called a burin. A burn works on a copper plate like a plow on a field. As it is moved across the plate, copper shavings, cal...
hors commerce proofHors Commerce Proof. Impressions annotated H.C. are supposedly not for sale. These proofs started to appear on the market as extensions of editions being printed in the late 1960s. They may diffe...
linocutsLinocuts are printed from a linoleum block, usually backed with wood for reinforcement. The linoleum is handled in exactly the same way as a wood block but, since it does not have a wood grain, the su...
restrikesRestrikes. Theoretically, these are any printings made after the first edition. A more useful definition would define restrikes as later impressions not authorized by the author or his heirs, as oppos...
printers proofPrinters Proof. A complimentary proof given to the printer. There can be from one to several of these proofs, depending upon the number of printers involved and the generosity of the artist.
posthumous editionPosthumous Edition. This one is printed from a matrix after the death of the artist. It has usually been authorized by the artists heirs or is the product of a publisher who previously purchased the ...
pochoirPochoir is a direct method of hand coloring through a stencil. The stencil itself is usually knife cut from thin-coated paper, paperboard, plastic or metal and the ink or paint is applied with a brush...
photo-lithographA photo-lithograph is generally a reproduction and not an original print. Color lithographs are made through the use of several stones or plates to separate the colors and printing the same sheet of p...
numbering1) Numbering. The numbering of individual impressions of prints can be found as early as the late nineteenth century. However, it did not become standard practice until the mid 1960s. Today, all limi...
monoprintA monoprint is made by taking an already etched and inked plate and adding to the composition by manipulating additional ink on the surface of the plate. This produces an impression different in appea...
mezzotintMezzotint is a technique of engraving areas of tone rather than lines. In this method, the entire surface of the plate is roughed by a spiked tool called a rocker so that, if inked, at that point, the...