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Glossary of Terms Used in Timber Harvesting and Forest Engineering

conventional forest productsAll commercial roundwood products except fuelwood. Includes boards, dimension lumber, pulp, and paper products (35).
crown classAll trees in a stand whose tops or crowns occupy a similar position in the canopy or crown cover (28).
tree farmingApplication of silvicultural practices for the perpetual production of commercial timber crops. Includes all activities from stand establishment through delivery of commercial timber (logs) to a log yard at the initial commercial product processing facili
annual growthAverage annual increase in the biomass of growing-stock trees of a specified area (30).
tail blockBlock fixed to a stump at the outer edge of a setting (in ground-lead and high-lead cable logging) or to the tail spar (in skyline cable logging), through which the haul-back line is reeved for returning the main line and the butt rigging to the loading p
skylineCableway stretched tautly between two spar trees and used as a track for a skyline carriage (22).
whole-tree chipsChips made from a whole-tree.
chunk upClean up and pile debris after logging an area (8).
machine rateCost per unit of time for owning and operating a logging machine or some logging equipment (20, 22). In accordance with engineering practices, the rate is composed of fixed costs such as depreciation, interest, taxes, and license fee, and variable costs i
topping1) Cutting off the top of a tree at a predetermined, minimum diameter.
2) harvest functions
tree shoeDevice in the shape of a segment of a circle used to support the skyline from a spar tree (22).
diameter at ground lineDiameter measure of a standing tree at the estimated cutting height.
cash flowDifference between cash receipts and cash expenditures over a given time (22).
feed rate1) Distance the stock being chipped moves during a given interval of time or operational cycle (23).
2) portable chipper terms
3) the distance that the stock being processed moves during a given interval of time or operational cycle.
timber appraisalEconomic appraisal of the monetary value of a timber stand (22).
gin poleErect pole with guys, 30 to 50 feet in height, leaning so that a loading block hung at the top is directly over the point where the truck will be spotted for loading (22).
ground lengthExtent to which the ground around a tree is broken by ridges, gullies or swells, rock outcrops, and sharp slope changes (10).
shay swivelFitting used to attach the slack-pulling line to the main line on a skyline system (32).
commercial forest land1) Forest land capable of producing crops of industrial wood and not withdrawn from timber utilization by statute or administrative regulation. Included are areas suitable for growing crops of industrial wood and generally capable of producing in excess of 2
2) land-use classes, forest land
international log ruleFormula rule that allows a 1/2 inch taper for each 4 feet of length and allows for a 1/16-inch shrinkage for each inch of board thickness. Rule used by the USDA Forest Service (26).
hogged fuelFuel made by grinding waste wood in a hog; a mix of wood residues such as sawdust, planer shavings, and sometimes coarsely broken-down bark and solid wood chunks produced in the manufacture of wood products and normally used as fuel (17).
stand conditionGeneral health of a stand of trees reflected by its development relative to the site potential. A good stand condition refers to a fully stocked stand that is producing fiber at a high rate based on specific site conditions such as moisture, soil quality,
high gradeGood quality timber.
sheave1) Grooved wheel or pulley (22).
2) a wheel, complete with arm or frame, suspended from structures to permit stringing of fiber optic cables. the sheaves must be lined with urethane or neoprene and have a diameter as required in specifications for each type of cable being installed for normal vertical suspension points
abney levelHand-held clinometer used to measure slope in percent (22).
complete tree harvestingHarvesting of a complete tree, including the roots (3).
hoedagHoelike tool with an elongated blade used for planting trees (17).
yarding1) Initial hauling of a log from the stump to a collection point.
2) harvest functions
marlin spikeIron tool that tapers to a point. Used to separate strands of rope (32).
basal area jam acreLand class based on total area per acre.
pass blockLight-weight block hung at the top of the spar tree and used to lift the bull block and other gear in rigging the tree (32).
jammerLightweight, two-drum yarder usually on a truck with a spar and boom; may be used for both short distance yarding and loading (22).
piedmont1) Located or formed at the base of a mountain range; an example would be a piedmont terrace.
2) a broad plateau that leads to the foot of a mountain range.
air-driedLumber or other wood products that have been either dried by exposure to natural atmospheric conditions outdoors or in an unheated shed or dried to equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere. Moisture content of air-dried wood fiber depends on relative h
slasher1) Machine that bucks longwood into shortwood at the landing. Also known as bucker (22).
2) Mobile machine designed to cut felled trees to a predetermined length with a shear or saw. Also known as a bucker.
barkerMachine used to remove bark from pulpwood (8).
multiple-use managementManagement of land resources with the objective of achieving optimum yields of products and services from a given area without impairing the productive capacity of the site (33).
periodic annual incrementMean annual growth or increase in volume during a specific period of time (26).
gross scaleMeasurement of log volume in which no deduction is made for defect (17).
injectorsMetering devices with a diesel engine that regulate the fuel flow (23).
day rateMethod of paying loggers by the day or hour instead of by the piece (9).
blue-stain fungusMost common form of fungal stain occurring in sapwood. Conifers are most susceptible but may also occur in light- colored heartwood of perishable timbers. Commonly develops in dead trees, logs, lumber, and other wood products until the wood is dry. Reduce
primary transportationMovement of a felled tree from the stump to a landing (10).
volume of sawtimberNet volume of the saw log portion of live sawtimber in board feet.
basal area factorNumber of units of basal area per acre (or per hectare) represented by each tree (17).
cutter1) One who fells, limbs, tops, and/or bucks trees (24).
2) 1. a small single-masted boat, fore-and-aft rigged, with two or more headsails and often a bowsprit. the mast is set farther back than on a sloop.
splicerOne who joins two pieces of cable together by intertwining the wire strands (6).
bucker1) One who saws felled trees into required lengths, such as logs, bolts, or sticks (8).
2) slasher (in this section)
multistemOperation handling two or more stems at the same time (23).
chokersetterPerson in a logging operation who places the choker around the log to be hauled to the landing.
climax forestPlant community dominated by trees representing the culminating stage of natural succession for that specific locality and environment (17).
overmaturePoint at which timber has begun to lessen in commercial value because of size, age, decay, or other factors. Many trees in a virgin or old growth stand are overmature and are, in fact, dying of old age (12).
head rigPrincipal machine in a sawmill, used for the initial breakdown of logs by sawing along the grain. Logs are first cut into cants on the head rig before being sent on to other saws for further processing. Also known as head saw (17).
chemical pulpingProcess in which wood fibers are separated by removing the lignin and certain other wood components through the use of chemicals (17).
annual allowable harvestQuantity of timber scheduled to be removed from a particular management unit in 1 year (17).
frost crackRadial, longitudinal split in the wood of a tree, generally near the base of the bole, caused by internal stresses due to extremely cold weather (17).
lumber tallyRecord of lumber giving the number of boards or pieces by size, grade, and species; often expressed in MBF (17).
bark residueRefers to the bark removed from a log and also to portions of wood and foreign matter such as sand, grit, or stones that may be imbedded in the bark (1).
sealed bid saleSale in which interested parties submit written bids at the time and place specified (17).
short-log trees1) Sawtimber-sized trees of commercial species that contain at least one merchantable 8-foot to 11-foot saw log (but not a 12-foot saw log).
2) tree classes
support linecross support
feller1) faller
2) Self-propelled machine designed to fell standing trees.
feller delimber slasher forwarder1) harvesting machine classification, multifunction machines
2) Self-propelled machine designed to fell, delimb, and slash trees and carry tree parts to a landing.
feller chipper1) harvesting machine classifications, multifunction machines
2) Used to fell and chip whole trees.
feller skidder1) harvesting machine classifications, multifunction machines
2) Self-propelled, self-loading machine designed to fell standing trees and transport them by skidding.
head sparhead tree
repair time1) machine time, scheduled operating time, operating time, delay time, mechanical delay time
2) Sum of active repair time, waiting repair time, and time spent servicing the machine while undergoing repair (5).
service time1) machine time, scheduled operating time, operating time, delay time, mechanical delay time
2) Time for normal service and maintenance (5).
scheduled nonoperating time1) machine time
2) Time when no production is scheduled for a machine.
scheduled operating time1) machine time
2) Time when a machine is scheduled to do productive work. Time during which a machine is on standby as a replacement machine is not considered as scheduled operating time. When a machine is replaced, the scheduled operating time of the replaced machine is c
3) календарная продолжительность работы
hitchhikerpogo stick
operating costsvariable costs
sorting1) Separation of forest products. Usually occurs at the landing (23).
2) Segregation of sawn wood items into groups that have similar characteristics, such as thickness, species, grades, and grain patterns, and into classes for stacking or racking, such as width and length.
chokerShort length of flexible wire, rope, or chain used to attach logs to a winch line or directly to a tractor.
single-span skylineSkyline without intermediate support spars (32).
bark beetleSmall, cylindrical beetle of the family Scolytidae, the adult of which bores into and beneath the bark of various trees for the purpose of egg laying (17).
drum barrelSpool around which cable is wound (22).
big stick loaderSteel frame located either midway on the bed of a bobtail pulpwood truck or directly behind the cab (10).
peaveyStout wooden lever, fitted with a strong, sharp spike used for rolling logs. (22). See cant dog and cant hook.
running skylineSystem of two or more suspended moving lines, generally referred to as main lines and haul-back lines. Will provide lift and travel to the load carrier when tension is properly applied (22).
stand tableTable showing the number of trees by species and diameter classes, generally per unit area of a stand. Such data may be presented in the form of a frequency distribution of diameter classes (17).
site utilizationTerm used when indicating the proportion of a usable forest site occupied by healthy, vigorous forest crop trees at any one point in time (17).
dominant treesThe most numerous and vigorous species in a mixed forest.
top loppingTo cut limbs from downed tree tops so that no limbs are more than a specified length along the tree stem (24).
hot logTo log and load out directly without intermediate storage or cold decking. Also known as hot load (20).
reload1) To transfer logs from one mode of transportation to another or between vehicles (20).
2) перегрузка ядерного горючего (в энергетическом реакторе)
crawlerTractor operating on continuous treads instead of wheels (22).
bearing treeTree marked to identify the nearby location of a survey corner. Also known as a witness tree (17).
intermediate treesTrees with small, crowded crowns below (but extending into) the general canopy level; these trees receive a little light from above and none from the side (20).
target forestType of forest, in terms of species mixture, size, stocking, and harvest age, considered best for a particular site in order to economically produce fiber in the qualities and quantities desired on a perpetual basis (17).
man-hour1) Unit of work performed by one man in 1 hour (24).
2) повременная работа; человеко-час (основная единица измерения затраты труда в> системе перт/стоимость)
half-trackVehicle moved by a pair of short, endless articulated belts, called tracks, driven by tractor tires. Steering is by a pair of ordinary wheels in front. The whole vehicle is termed a half-track (26).
allowable cutVolume of timber that may be harvested during a given period to maintain sustained production (31).
yarding of unmerchantable materialYarding of cull, rotten, small, or otherwise unsalable wood material to a designated area for disposal is written into the timber contract. Required on all USDA Forest Service timber sale contracts (17).
saplingYoung tree less than 4 inches in d.b.h. The minimum diameter of saplings is usually, although not always, placed at 2 inches (17).