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Glossary of Terms Used in Timber Harvesting and Forest Engineering

a-frame
    Two wood or metal uprights mounted in the shape of the letter "a" to support lead blocks at the upper end (22).
abney level
    Hand-held clinometer used to measure slope in percent (22).
aboveground biomass
    Aboveground portion of a tree, excluding the root system (29).
accumulating shear
    Shearhead on a feller-buncher that is capable of accumulating and holding two or more cut stems (35).
active repair time
  1. Machine time, mechanical delay time, scheduled operating time, delay time

  2. Time during which actual repair work is carried out on the machine itself or a dismantled part of the machi...
actual productive time
  1. Machine time, productive time

  2. Time spent using the machine to carry out the actual task (5).
admiralty shackle
    Heavy shackle at the tail tree that connects the skyline to the stub line (guyline extension) (19).
adverse grade
    In highway transport, uphill haul that requires trucks to use lower gears (10).
aerial logging
    Yarding system employing aerial lift of logs, such as balloons or helicopters (26).
aerial photogrammetry
    Interpreting information from aerial photographs (17).
afforestation
    Establishment of forest crops by artificial methods, such as planting or sowing on land where trees have never grown (28).
облесение; лесонасаждение; лесовозобновление;
age class
    One of the intervals, commonly 10 or 20 years, into which the age range of tree crops is divided for classification or use. also pertains to the trees included in such an interval. for example, tr...
air-dried
    Lumber or other wood products that have been either dried by exposure to natural atmospheric conditions outdoors or in an unheated shed or dried to equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere. moi... ad; воздушно-сухой;
all live trees
  1. Growing stock, rough, and rotten trees 1 inch in d.b.h. and larger.

  2. Tree classes
all-aged
    Forest or stand containing trees of almost all age classes up to and including trees of harvestable age (17).
alligator
    Crotch
allowable cut
    Volume of timber that may be harvested during a given period to maintain sustained production (31).
allowable-cut effect
    Allocation of anticipated future forest timber yields to the present allowable cut; this is employed to increase current harvest levels (especially when constrained by evenflow) by spreading antic...
anchor cable
  1. Line used to tie down a yarder to prevent tipping on a heavy pull (32).

  2. A cable or line, one end of which is held in a fixed position.
якорная цепь;
anchor log
  1. Wooden, concrete, or metal bar buried in the earth to hold a guy rope. also called a deadman (32).

  2. A timber which serves as a dead man.
angledozer
    Heavy steel blade mounted across the front of a crawler tractor. the blade can be raised and lowered, and each end can be advanced and retracted to place the blade at various angles, making it pos... bulldozer.;
annual allowable harvest
    Quantity of timber scheduled to be removed from a particular management unit in 1 year (17).
annual growth
    Average annual increase in the biomass of growing-stock trees of a specified area (30).
appraised price
    Price of a particular timber sale based on the estimate of the timber's actual market value. the minimum acceptable price on a sale (12).
arching
    Skidding logs or trees using a mounted or trailing arch (8).
area regulation
    Method of controlling the annual or periodic acreage harvested from a forest, despite fluctuations in fiber-yield volumes. leads to a managed forest (17).
area salvage
    Timber sales in which the usda forest service sells dead timber within a given area. usually covers more than one operating season and requires the operator to return annually to remove any dead t...
articulated
    With reference to a vehicle, hinged at the center for turning, as with a wheeled skidder (24).
собранные; сочлененный;
artificial regeneration
    Renewal of the forest by planting or direct seeding; establishing a new stand of trees by planting seeds or seedlings by hand or machine (17).
average yarding distance
    Total yarding distance for all turns divided by total number of turns for a particular setting (20).
back guy
    Line behind the spar tree, opposite the main line or skyline, which takes most of the pull in yarding logs (32).
back line
    Boundary line marked by blazed or painted trees indicating the cutting area (8).
backcut
    Final cut in felling a tree. made on the opposite side of the direction of fall (24).
backfire
    Blaze set in front of an advancing forest fire in an effort to check the wildfire by cutting off its fuel supply.
ballhooter
    Person who rolls or slides logs down a hillside (8).
barber chair
    High slab-like splint, resembling a chair back, left standing on a stump above the undercut as a result of faulty felling or heavy lean of the tree (26).
bardon hook
    Hook used with wire rope slings for gripping trees or logs to be skidded (24).
bark beetle
    Small, cylindrical beetle of the family scolytidae, the adult of which bores into and beneath the bark of various trees for the purpose of egg laying (17).
bark residue
    Refers to the bark removed from a log and also to portions of wood and foreign matter such as sand, grit, or stones that may be imbedded in the bark (1).
barker
    Machine used to remove bark from pulpwood (8).
баркера-саммерсона., монтгомери - o`лири-баркера;
barking drum
    Large drum in which logs or billets are tumbled by mechanical rotation, the bark being removed by abrasive action (26).
barking iron
    Tool with a narrow-shaped, curved blade used in removing bark by hand. also called a spud (8).
basal area
    Cross sectional area of a tree, in square feet, measured at breast height. used as a method of measuring the volume of timber in a given stand (12).
basal area factor
    Number of units of basal area per acre (or per hectare) represented by each tree (17).
basal area jam acre
    Land class based on total area per acre.
basal area per acre
    Land classification
bearing tree
    Tree marked to identify the nearby location of a survey corner. also known as a witness tree (17).