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Glossary of Terms Used in Timber Harvesting and Forest Engineering

conventional forest products
    All commercial roundwood products except fuelwood. includes boards, dimension lumber, pulp, and paper products (35).
forwarding
  1. Transporting trees or parts of trees by carrying them completely off the ground rather than by pulling or dragging them along the ground. also known as prehauling.

  2. Harvest functions...
roundwood
    A length of cut tree generally having a round cross- section, such as a log or bolt (12).
hyster
    A winch (19).
coppice regeneration
    Ability of certain hardwood species to regenerate by producing many new shoots from a cut stump (35).
aboveground biomass
    Aboveground portion of a tree, excluding the root system (29).
crook
  1. Abrupt bend in a tree or log (24).

  2. The distortion of lumber in which there is a deviation,
land base
    Acres of forest land that are actually available for forest management. this involves future trends not only in forest growth but also in deletions from the land base (10).
spacing control
    Act of creating, within the limits of the existing stand, a uniform distribution of trees that provides optimum growing space for each tree by eliminating overcrowding. as a result, tree diameter ...
mopping up
    Act of making a fire safe after it has been controlled by extinguishing or removing burning material along or near a control line (6).
net scale
    Actual amount of merchantable wood contained in a log as opposed to the gross scale, which includes defect (9).
residual value
  1. Actual or assumed value of a machine after it has been fully depreciated (20).

  2. Остаточная стоимость
остаточная стоимость; valore residuo; ликвидационная стоимость;
stand age
  1. Age of trees of the dominant forest type and stand-size class.

  2. Land classification
turbocharger
    Air pump designed to put more air into engine cylinders; pump is driven by the exhaust heat (22).
southern states
    Alabama, mississippi, texas, louisiana, arkansas, and tennessee. also known as the south (23).
pacific coast states
    Alaska, washington, oregon, california, and hawaii (10).
whole tree
    All components of a tree, except the stump. also known as a full tree.
clearcutting
    All merchantable trees on a setting to be yarded are felled (22).
industrial wood
    All roundwood products except fuelwood (33).
crown class
    All trees in a stand whose tops or crowns occupy a similar position in the canopy or crown cover (28).
allowable-cut effect
    Allocation of anticipated future forest timber yields to the present allowable cut; this is employed to increase current harvest levels (especially when constrained by evenflow) by spreading antic...
soil failure
  1. Alteration or destruction of the soil structure by mechanical forces such as in shearing, compression, or tearing (7).

  2. Soil reaction nomenclature
gradient
  1. Amount by which the grade increases or decreases in a unit of horizontal distance (21).

  2. Градиент

  3. Уклон; градиент

  4. In tinting lenses, application of dye to a len... gdnt; градиент; уклон; g; grad; градиент; функции;
moisture content
  1. Amount of water present in a material such as wood or soil. generally expressed as a percentage of the material s ovendry weight.

  2. The weight of moisture contained in a piece of timb... влажность;
net annual growth of sawtimber
  1. Annual change in volume of live sawtimber trees plus total volume of trees reaching sawtimber size, minus volume losses resulting from natural causes.

  2. Quality classes
net annual growth of growing stock
  1. Annual change in volume of sound wood in live sawtimber and poletimber trees, plus total volume of sound wood in live sawtimber and poletimber trees, plus total volume of trees entering these ...
forest practice
    Any activity that enhances and/or recovers forest growth or harvest yield, such as site preparation, planting, thinning, fertilization, and harvesting.
gravity logging
    Any cable system that depends on the force of gravity for downhill travel of the carriage (20).
coastal plain
    Any plain (or plains) of unconsolidated fluvial or marine sediment that had its margin on the shore of a large body of water, particularly the sea. (for example, the atlantic coastal plain of the ...
overstory removal
    Any silvicultural treatment with the desired end result being the removal of the overstory component from the growing stock of a multistoried stand. examples are outright harvest, girdling, and si...
chemical thinning
    Any thinning in which the unwanted trees are killed by chemical poisoning; band or frill girdling may be done at the same time (26).
химическая букетировка;
crop tree
    Any tree forming or selected to form a component of the final crop. the tree is usually selected when the stand or plantation is young (26).
parent tree
    Any tree whose seeds are used to produce progeny for use in genetic experimentation. usually the parent tree is selected because it displays characteristics either interesting from a research stan...
tree farming
    Application of silvicultural practices for the perpetual production of commercial timber crops. includes all activities from stand establishment through delivery of commercial timber (logs) to a l...
poletimber
    Arbitrary term for small sawtimber trees.
skyline road
    Area bounded by the length and lateral yarding width of any given skyline setting (32).
land area
  1. Area of dry land and land temporarily or partially covered by water such as marshes, flood plains, streams, sloughs, and estuaries. canals less than 1/8 mile wide, and lakes, reservoirs, and p...
experimental plot
    Area of ground laid out to determine the effects of a certain method of treatment.
опытный участок;
cutting unit
    Area of timber designated for harvest (32).
deadening
  1. Area on which timber has been killed by fire, flooding, insects, or disease (19).

  2. The use of damping material.
seedbed
    Area prepared to receive seeds, such as an area cleared of plants and duff, so that natural seed fall can establish a new forest (17).
семенное ложе; почва для посева; пашня;
logging setting
    Area to be logged; a block or strip.
planting
  1. Artificial regeneration method in which a new stand of trees is established by restocking the area with tree seedlings.

  2. Floral décor to enhance the appearance of the exhibi... посадка; высадка; посев; сев;
logging plan
    As used in the eastern and western regions: layout, on a topographical map, of roads, landings, and setting boundaries of a logging area.
chip separator
  1. Attachment to whole-tree chippers that separates acceptable chips from unacceptable bark, limbs, and foliage (3).

  2. Portion of a chipper that includes a chipper spout for the separati...
annual growth
    Average annual increase in the biomass of growing-stock trees of a specified area (30).
branding ax
    Ax used to stamp brands into logs (19).
junkbutt
    Badly splintered end of a felled tree that has been cut back to sound wood (12).
overstory trees
    Bees that form the uppermost canopy layer in a forest of more than one story (20).