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Data Encryption & Cryptography Glossary

backup tapesCopying data on tapes for the purpose of restoring the original content in case data is lost.
encryption softwareSoftware used to encrypt and decrypt data, usually in the form of computer files, removable media, email messages, or in the form of packets sent over computer networks.
gramm-leach-bliley actThis Act includes laws that govern the collection and disclosure of customers' personal financial information by financial institutions. It requires all financial institutions to design, implement and...
hipaaThe Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) is a set of standards for the privacy and protection of all electronic health information. It includes a Privacy Rule and a Security Rul...
integrated circuit card (icc)See Smart Card definition.
output feedback mode (ofb mode)Output feedback (OFB) is a mode of operation for a block cipher. It has some similarities to the ciphertext feedback mode in that it permits encryption of differing block sizes, but has the key differ...
pci data security standardPayment Card Industry Data Security Standard is a set of comprehensive requirements for enhancing payment account data security
plain textUnencrypted text
private keyA private or secret key is an encryption/decryption key known only to the party or parties that exchange secret messages.
частный ключ;
public keyA public key is a value provided by some designated authority as an encryption key that, combined with a private key derived from the public key, can be used to effectively encrypt messages.
общедоступный ключ;
public key encryptionA form of encryption that utilizes a unique pair of keys, one (the "public key ") being openly known, and the other (the "private key "), being known only to the recipient of an encrypted message.
sarbanes-oxley (sox)A legislation created to protect shareholders and the general public from fradulent practices. This legislation requires that financial institutions store relevant business records "not less than 5 ye...
secure key managementTrusted users are issued a key which enables them to access encrypted data.
stream cipherA stream cipher is a type of symmetric encryption algorithm. While block ciphers operate on large blocks of data, stream ciphers typically operate on smaller units of plaintext, usually bits.
storage encryptionBackup data stored is encrypted in an effort to prevent data theft and secure the kept data.
storage encryption applianceAppliance used to encrypt data.
encryption hardwareHardware device used to encrypt data. They are designed to work across a full range of operating systems and appear transparent to the operating system.
encryption1) The process of transforming text into an unintelligible form called cipher.
2) A method of encoding data for security.
3) Защита сообщения от неправомочного прочтения, основанная на преобразо...

encryptTo convert plain text into an unintelligible form.
block cipherA block cipher a type of symmetric-key encryption algorithm that transforms a fixed-length block of plaintext (unencrypted text) data into a block of ciphertext (encrypted text) data of the same lengt...
california sb 1386California Senate Bill requires that organizations that own or have access to personal information of California residents to notify them if the security of their information is compromised.
cipher block chaining mode (cbc mode)Cipher block chaining (CBC) is a mode of operation for a block cipher in which a sequence of bits are encrypted as a single unit or block with a cipher key applied to the entire block.
cipher feedback mode (cfb mode)In the Cipher Feedback Mode (CFB) is data encrypted in units smaller than the block size. This mode can be used to encrypt any number of bits e.g. single bits or single characters (bytes) before sendi...
ciphertextUnreadible text resulting from encryption.
шифртекст (полученный в результате шифрования текст);
cryptographyThe art of protecting information by transforming it (encrypting it) into an unreadable format, called cipher text.
криптография (наука о принципах, средствах и методах преобразования информации для защиты её от несанкционированного доступа и искажения);
data encryptionThe process of converting data - known as plaintext - using an algorithm to make it unreadable.
data storageMemory, components, media, and devices that retain digital and computer data for.
data storage devicesA device used for saving data. Data is copied it recorded on to the device.
decipherTo convert from a code or cipher to plain text; decode.
decryptTo convert from a code or cipher to plain text; decode.
decryptionConverting data from the unintelligible ciphertext back to plaintext. The reverse of Data Encryption.
electronic codebook (ecb encryption)A mode of operation for a block cipher, with the characteristic that each possible block of plaintext has a defined corresponding cipher text value and vice versa.
electronic data storageA storage device which requires electrical power to store and retrieve saved data.
encipherTo convert plain text into an unintelligible form by means of a cipher.
triple desAlso referred to as 3DES, a mode of the DES encryption algorithm that encrypts data three times. Three 64-bit keys are used, instead of one, for an overall key length of 192 bits.