Глоссарий

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England from the other shore






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Глоссарий по фотографии

e-6
    The current developing process for the majority of today`s color slide films; the term also refers to films developed by this process, such as e-6 type films.

burning-in
    In darkroom work, giving additional exposure to a portion of a print made from a negative to add density and tonal information. often used to balance tones in contrasty scenes. the same term is us...
dodging
    In conventional or digital printing and image manipulation, the selective reduction of density in certain areas of the scene.

contrast grade
    In black and white printing, an indication of the contrast rendition the paper will yield. #0 and #1 are low contrast; #4 and #5 are high contrast. the "normal" contrast grade is #2.
fill-in flash
    Flash used outdoors, generally to balance a subject that is backlit. can also be used to control excessive contrast, add light to shadows, or brighten colors on an overcast day.

infrared film
    Film which is highly sensitive to red/near infrared radiation. a red filter should be used to get the best effect with this film.

tungsten-balanced
    Film that it balanced to reproduce colors faithfully when exposed under artificial tungsten light sources. also, the lamps that emit that light.

special effects
    Any technique, lens, filter, accessory, computer effect, use of film, etc. that converts or distorts the "reality" of nature in a picture. special effects can be sublime or ridiculous, d...
    efectos especiales;
close-up
    Any photograph made from a distance that is generally closer than our normal viewing distance. close-up pictures are often startling in the detail they reveal.

primer plano .;
auxiliary lens
    An add-on optical device that alters the focal length of the prime lens for close-up, telephoto, or other special effects photography. the close-up devices, for example, usually comes in +1, +2, a...
washed out
    Jargon for seriously overexposed slides, or overexposed highlight areas within slides and prints. it`s as if the colors have been diluted to the extent that all pigments have been "washed out...
burnt-out
    Jargon that refers to loss of details in the highlight portion of a scene due to overexposure. with slide film, it might mean that no image detail has been recorded on the film, or that highlights...
close down
    Jargon that refers to making a photograph with less exposure than previously used. with apertures, using a narrower apertures; with shutter speed, using a faster shutter speed. for example, going ...
selective focus
    The creative use of focus. focus can be set so that one plane or subject in a crowded scene emerges, or for sharpness near to far in a scene that covers miles. selective focus is achieved through ...
digitize
    The conversion of analog (film, print) information to digital form by use of a scanner, digital sensor or camera.

digital darkroom
    The computer and image editing and manipulation programs.

correct exposure
    The combination of aperture and shutter speed that yields a full-toned negative or slide that yields the best possible tonal representation of the scene onto film or sensor. the constants in an ex...
shutter release button
    The button that releases the shutter and ``fires`` the camera. many shutter release buttons have two stages-slight pressure actuates the meter or autofocus system (or both), further pressure fires...
single-lens-reflex
    Or slr. a type of camera that has a movable mirror behind the lens and a ground glass for viewing the image. film sits behind the mirror assembly, which swings out of the way when an exposure is m...
overrides
    Making adjustments or intervening to change the camera`s autoexposure system reading. some overrides include exposure compensation and changing iso ratings.

enlargement
    Making a print from a negative or slide; generally, making a print larger than standard size, such as an 8x10-inch or bigger "blowup".

exposure meters
    Light reading instruments that yield signals that are translated to f-stops and shutter speeds. reflected-light meters read light reflected off the subject; incident meters reads light falling upo...
electronic flash
    Known as a flash gun, strobe, or speedlight, it consists of a gas-filled tube that is fired by an electrical charge. it can be mounted directly on the camera hot shoe (which links the shutter firi...
zone focusing
    A way to focus that utilizes the depth of field scale rather than the actual distance from camera to subject. zone focusing is most useful for candid, street photography.

variable contrast
    A type of black and white printing paper that when exposed under different color light yields different printing contrast grades.

previsualization
    A thought process that helps a photographer "see" what the photograph will look like on film, and/or a print, done as the picture is being composed.

black-and-white
    A photographic film or paper used to create monochrome images. though we think of black and white mainly in terms of a gray scale, prints can have a wide variety of subtle tones, from blue- to bro...
autoexposure
    A method of exposure where aperture and shutter speed settings are first read, then set, by the camera`s exposure system. various autoexposure modes allow for customization or biasing the readings...
reflected light meter
    A meter that reads light reflected from the subject. all in-camera meters are of this type.

time exposure
    A long exposure, usually not handheld, for recording scenes at night or in very dim rooms.

mirror lens
    A lens where the light path is bent and reflected internally to increase the focal length of the lens; a simplified system that is usually less expensive than conventional super-telephoto (300mm a...
wide-angle lens
    A lens that offers a wide angle of view, usually in the 35 to 24mm focal length range. ultra-wide-angle lenses range from 20mm to 8mm. wide-angle lenses also allow use of very deep zones of focus....
cable release
    A flexible encased wire attached to a threaded metal coupler that screws into the shutter release button on the camera. when one end of the wire is depressed with a plunger the other end activates...
conversion filter
    A filter that gives allows daylight film to record color faithfully in artificial light or, conversely, for tungsten-balanced film in daylight. for example, orange conversion filters are used when...
daylight-balanced
    A film that will reproduce colors faithfully when exposed in daylight. the film can also be used with flash, as properly made flash or strobes yield daylight-balanced light.

color negative film
    A film that forms a photographic image in which light tones are rendered dark (and vice versa) and colors are reproduced as their complements (such as blue being recorded as yellow); all of revers...
soft focus
    A picture, or an area in a picture that is left slightly out-of-focus for effect, or a lens or filter that diffuses light and "softens" the overall scene.

desenfocado artistico;
program exposure mode
    A preset arrangement of aperture and shutter speed that is programmed into the exposure system of a camera to respond to a certain level of brightness when the camera is loaded with a certain spee...
contact print
    A print made the same size as the negative.

reflex viewing system
    A system of mirrors in an slr that makes the scene right-reading in the camera`s eye-level viewfinder.

dx-coding
    A system of film cassette coding and in-camera pins that informs the camera`s exposure system that a specific speed and exposure length film is loaded. most modern 35mm cameras have this feature.<...
depth of field preview button
    A switch, button, or electronic push-button that allows for preview of the depth of field of the set aperture in the viewfinder. during composition the lens is wide open, thus the depth of field i...
ground glass
  1. A specially prepared glass used as the focusing screen in cameras.

  2. Glass having a surface that has been roughened, usually by sandblasting or by acid, to make it nontransparent.
b or bulb
    A shutter setting that indicates that the shutter will remain open for as long as the shutter release is pressed. the term originated with the rubber air shutter bulbs used to operate shutters in ...
panning
  1. A shooting technique where the subject is followed during exposure; generally done with a slow shutter speed.

  2. The act of using a slow shutter speed, and moving the camera in the sam...
f-numbers
    A series of numbers designating the apertures, or openings at which a lens is set. the higher the number, the narrower the aperture. for example, f/16 is narrower (by one stop) than f/11--it lets ...
developing
    A series of chemical and physical actions done in a commercial lab or the home darkroom that converts light-struck film to an image that can be viewed directly or printed; making prints from negat...
    revelado .;
high contrast
    A scene where the range between the brightest and darkest areas is extreme, or is such that it may cause exposure problems. a film that renders scenes in high-contrast fashion. the absence of midd...
    alto contraste;
autoexposure lock
    A push-button, switch, or lever that locks in exposure after the initial reading has been made, regardless of a change in camera position or light conditions after the lock is activated. release o...