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Glossary Of Laser Terminology

flash lampa tube typically filled with krypton or xenon. produces a high intensity white light in short duration pulses.
pigment epitheliuma layer of cells at the back of the retina containing pigment granules, i.e., a cloud of charged particles surrounding a laser impact.
repetitively pulsed lasera laser with multiple pulses of radiant energy occurring in sequence with a prf > 1 hz.
embedded lasera laser with an assigned class number higher than the inherent capability of the laser system in which it is incorporated, where the system`s lower classification is appropriate to the engineering fea...
tunable dye lasera laser whose active medium is a liquid dye, pumped by another laser or flash lamps, to produce various colors of light. the color of light may be tuned by adjusting optical tuning elements and/or cha...
q-switched lasera laser which store energy in the active medium, to produce short pulse with high energy. it is done by blocking the resonator ability to oscillate, keeping the "q-factor" of the optical cav...
pulsed lasera laser which delivers energy in the form of a single pulse, or train, of laser pulses.
diode laser1) a laser that emits coherent light through the injection of electric current into a semiconductor diode. diode
2) a semiconductor diode that generates laser light. a current flowing through the d...

solid state lasera laser in which the active medium is in solid state (usually not including semiconductor lasers).
ion lasera laser in which the active medium is composed of ions of a nobel gas (gas such as argon or krypton.). the gas is usually excited by high discharge voltage at the ends of a small bore tube.
gas lasera laser in which the active medium is a gas. the gas can be composed of molecules (like co2), atoms (like he-ne) or ions (like ar+).
meniscus lensa lens which has one side convex, the other concave.
optical density1) a logarithmic expression for the attenuation produced by an attenuating medium, such as an eye protection filter.
2) a logarithmic measure of the power attenuation, or the refractive index

pulse position modulation (ppm)a means of encoding digital data by varying the position of a bit in a word that has m bit positions.
z-cavitya term referring to the shape of the optical layout of the tubes and resonator inside a laser.
population inversion1) a state in which a substance has been energized, or excited, so that more atoms or molecules are in a higher excited state than in a lower resting state. this is a necessary prerequisite for laser ...
laser roda solid-state, rod-shaped lasing medium in which ion excitation is caused by a source of intense light (optical pumping) such as a flashlamp. various materials are used for the rod, the earliest of wh...
coaxial gasa shield of inert gas flowing over the target material to prevent plasma oxidation and absorption, to blow away debris, and to control heat reaction. the gas jet has the same axis as the beam so the t...
protective housinga protective housing is a device designed to prevent access to radiant power or energy.
picoseconda period of time equal to 10-12 seconds.
lossy mediuma medium which absorbs or scatters radiation passing through it.
holographya medium for bending and focusing light that uses the interference of monochromatic objects and reference waves to record and reproduce multiple two-dimensional images for three-dimensional viewing.
axial-flow lasera laser in which an axial flow of gas is maintained through the tube to replace those gas molecules depleted by the electrical discharge used to excite the gas molecules to the lasing.
scanning lasera laser having a time-varying direction, origin or pattern of propagation with respect to a stationary frame of reference.
gas discharge lasera laser containing a gaseous lasing medium in a glass tube in which a constant flow of gas replenishes the molecules depleted by the electricity or chemicals used for excitation.
axicon lensa conical lens which, when followed by a conventional lens, can focus laser light to a ring shape.
corrected lensa compound lens that is made measurably free of aberrations through the careful selection of its dimensions and materials.
phased-array receivera collection of spaced antennas, dishes, mirrors or lenses that when the individuals signals collected are properly summed in the correct phase, can act in unison with the diffraction-limited beam per...
phased-array transmittera collection of spaced antennas, dishes, mirrors or lenses that when properly excited in the correct phase, can act in unison with the diffraction-limited beam performance of a single element as large...
radiometry1) a branch of science which deals with the measurement of radiation.
2) the measurement of radiation in the optical spectrum, which includes

binsa bin has a bandpass filter response with certain frequency bandwidth. a spectral analysis requires the signal to be divided into a large number of bins. the signal power spectral density at each bin ...
rotating lensa beam delivery lens designed to move in a circle and thus rotate the laser beam around a circle.
semiconductor laser1) (see diode laser). a type of laser which produces its output from semiconductor materials such as gaas.
2) a laser in which injection of current into a semiconductor diode produces light by reco...

blink reflex(see aversion response).
optical pumping1) - the excitation of the active medium in a laser by the application of light, rather than electrical discharge. light can be from a conventional source like xenon or krypton lamp, or from another l...
ktp (potassium titanyl phosphate)a crystal used to change the wavelength of an nd:yag laser from 1060 nm (infrared) to 532 nm (green).
q-switcha device that has the effect of a shutter to control the laser resonator`s ability to oscillate. control allows one to spoil the resonator`s "q-factor", keeping it low to prevent lasing acti...
x-ray lasera device that uses stimulated emission to produce coherent x -rays.
aiming beama laser (or other light source) used as a guide light. used coaxially with infrared or other invisible light, may also be a reduced level of the actual laser used for surgery or for other applications...
beam bendera hardware assembly containing an optical device, such as a mirror, capable of changing the direction of a laser beam; used to re-point the beam and used in "folded", compact laser systems.
excimer lasera gas laser which emits in the uv spectrum. the active medium is an "excited dimer" which does not have a stable ground state.
helium-neon (he-ne) lasera gas laser in which helium (he) and neon (ne) atoms are the active medium. this laser emits primarily in the visible spectrum, primarily at 633 [nm], but also have some lines in the near infrared. us...
carbon dioxide (co2) lasera gas laser in which co2 molecules are the active medium. this laser emits in the infrared spectrum, with the strongest emission line at 10.6 μm. it can be operated in either cw or pulsed mod...
argon lasera gas laser in which argon ions are the active medium. this laser emits in the blue - green visible spectrum, primarily at 488 and 515 nm..
light regulationa form of power regulation in which output power is monitored and maintained at a constant level by controlling discharge current.
electromagnetic wavea disturbance which propagates outward from an electric charge that oscillates or is accelerated. includes radio waves, x-rays, gamma rays; and infrared, ultraviolet, and visible light.
laser pulsea discontinuous burst of laser radiation, as opposed to a continuous beam. a true laser pulse achieves higher peak powers than that attainable in a cw output.
gated pulsea discontinuous burst of laser light, made by timing (gating) a continuous wave output, usually in fractions of a second.