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16 мая, 2017

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Entry of a foreign company into the Russian market

11 апреля, 2017

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Telecommunications Glossary

access channels
    Dedicated channels giving nondiscriminatory access to a local cable system by the public, government agencies or educational institutions.
accunet switched digital services
    High-speed dial-up digital data services offered by at&t for full duplex digital transmission at speeds of 56, 64, 384 and 1536 kbps. uses include data, voice and video services.
acoustic coupler
    A device that allows a conventional telephone handset to feed its signal into a modem, as opposed to direct couplers, which feed the modulated/demodulated signal directly into the phone line.
acoustic echo canceller
    All speakerphones have some form of adaptive echo canceller that produces a synthetic replica of the potential echo to subtract from the transmit audio. most units have a center clipping echo supp...
acoustic echo return loss - aerl
    The minimum loss experienced by a sound in traveling from the loudspeaker to the microphone in a conference room. it is expressed in db or decibels. a 0 db loss corresponds to a perfectly reflecti...
acoustic echo return loss enhancement - aerle
    The maximum echo cancellation provided by the acoustic canceller. typical figures will vary from 6 to 18 db. the larger the number the better. it is important to note whether the figure is quoted ...
acoustic modem
    A modulator-demodulator unit that converts data signals to telephone tones and back again.
active satellite
    A satellite that transmits a signal, in contrast to a passive satellite that only reflects a signal. the signal received by the active satellite is usually amplified and translated to a different ...
ad hoc
    Teleconferencing technology and sites assembled for an event; equipment may be rented or permanently installed; sites are not always part of the network.
adpcm - adaptive differential pulse code modulation
    A method of compressing audio data by recording the differences between successive digital samples rather than full value of the samples. there are many different types of adpcm standards; this re...
adsl - asymmetric digital subscriber loop
    Adsl uses a regular phone line (twisted pair) without a dial tone (a dry pair) to allow transfer speeds of up to 7mb downstream with slower speeds going back up (faster than a t1). the telcos are ...
affiliate network
    Group with their own satellite receive equipment; routinely receive same programming.
aftra
    American federation of television and radio artists. a union for artists who perform on broadcast media, including tape.
america online - aol
    Commercial information service with a graphical interface.
analog-to-digital - a/d conversion
    The conversion of an analog signal into a digital equivalent. an a/d converter samples or measures an input voltage and outputs a digitally encoded number corresponding to that voltage.
animation
    A video, film, and computer production technique utilizing cartoon-type artwork to create the illusion of movement.
animación;
ansi - american national standards institute
    Ansi is one of these terminal emulation methods. although most popular on pc-based bulletin-board systems, it can also be found on some internet sites. to use it properly, you will first have to t...
antenna power
    The product of the square of the broadcast antenna current and the antenna resistance where the current is measured.
application software
    In computers, programs used to interact with and accomplish work for the user. application software is usually written in a higher computer language such as basic, cobol, fortran or pascal, and ma...
applications program
    A computer program dedicated to a specific purpose or task. applications programs which produce discernible results and can sometimes be machine-independent, are distinct from systems programs, wh...
archival
  1. A medium that is readable and/or writable for an extended period.

  2. Long-lasting. in processing, those procedures that help insure stability of the image. also, storage materials that... sucesión en la propiedad de un archivo .;
asynchronous communication
    Takes place in different time frames and accessed at the user`s convenience. synchronous communication takes place in the same time frame such as a live teleconference.
atm - asynchronous transfer mode
    Atm switching protocol can handle all types of traffic - voice, data, image, and video.
atv - advanced television
    An agglomeration of techniques, based largely on digital signal processing and transmission, that permits far more program material to be carried through channels than existing analog systems can ...
audio bridge
    An audio bridge connects the telephones at remote sites, equalizes the noise distortion and background noise for a live audio teleconference.
audio presentation
    Often overlooked, but just as important as the video (perhaps more so) is the sound portion of the program. without the audio, nothing is understood while a video failure could be tolerated if the...
audio response
    A form of output that uses verbal replies to inquiries. the computer is programmed to seek answers to inquiries made on a time-shared on-line system and then to utilize a special audio response un...
audio response unit
    Device that provides a spoken response to digital inquiries from a telephone or other device. the response is composed from a prerecorded vocabulary of words and can be transmitted over telecommun...
audio teleconferencing
    Two-way electronic voice communication between two or more groups, or three or more individuals, who are in separate locations.
audio-subcarrier
    Frequency which transmits audio for an accompanying video signal or independent audio (such as a radio program). audio is sent along with the video signal, but on a different frequency.
audiographic
    Teleconference system which uses narrow band telecommunications channels (telephone lines or subcarriers); transmits audio and graphics. graphics can be transmitted by facsimile transceivers (tran...
aural cable
    Services providing fm-only original programming to cable systems on a lease basis.
authoring system
    Computer software that allows one to develop the framework for an interactive multimedia presentation. authoring software enables the use of multiple data types as well as the controls needed to p... sistema protegido .;
automatic number identification - ani
    The automatic identification of a calling station, usually for automatic message accounting. also used in pay-per-view automated telephone order entry to identify a customer for billing and progra...
b-mac
    A method of transmitting and scrambling television signals where mac (multiplexed analog component) signals are time-multiplexed with a digital burst containing digitized sound, video synchronizin...
backbone microwave system
    A series of directional microwave paths carrying common information to be relayed between remote points. the backbone microwave system is engineered to allow the insertion of signals, the dropping...
base band distribution systems
    Usually used when the viewing areas are close together, and when tv monitors are used for viewing. the base band audio/video output from the satellite receivers is fed directly into the monitor. t...
basic rate interface - bri
    The basic subscriber loop for one or two users, which delivers two 64 kpbs b channels and one 16 kbps d channel over a standard twisted pair loop. each circuit-switched b channel can transmit voic...
basic receivers
    Lowest cost; limited (or manual) channel tuning capability; may use fixed antennas.
batched communication
    The sending of a large body of data from one station to another station network, without intervening responses from the receiving unit.
bbs - bulletin board system/service
    The bbs is an area within a network where users can post information for public display, in much the same way one posts information on a regular bulletin board. most networks dedicate a bulletin b...
beyond the horizon region
    That physical region beyond the optical horizon with which line-of- sight radio communications is not normally possible, but can occur if atmospheric conditions are such to cause beam bending or f...
bicycle tapes
    The process whereby video tape material is distributed by sending or bicycling the tape after presentation to the next site for its scheduled presentation.
bidirectional flow
    A pathway allocating two-way data or communication exchange; flow in either direction represented on the same flow line in a flowchart.
binary files
    Those containing information that is not represented in the file by ascii characters. these may be graphics, formatted files, or even executable programs. in order to send these files, special up-...
bisdn - broadband isdn
    Is expected to offer dedicated circuits, switched circuits and packet services at rates of 155 mbps and above.bisdn is currently in the conceptual stage, and the term refers to a family of service...
bit density
    A measure of the number of bits received per unit of length or area.
bit stream
    A continuous string of bit positions occurring serially in time.
corriente de (transferencia) de bits;
blanking (picture)
    The portion of the composite video signal whose instantaneous amplitude makes the vertical and horizontal retrace invisible.
blanking signal
    A specified series of blanking pulses.