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24 февраля, 2017

"Бисерче вълшебно" 2017

24 февраля, 2017

Вестник "Стандарт"

24 февраля, 2017

В России учредят премию за сохранение языкового многообразия

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Глоссарий морских терминов (рангоут, такелаж, устройство судна)

брать рифыубавить парус, зарифить его (см. «рифы»).
гротасоставная часть названий парусов, рангоута и такелажа, расположенных ниже марса грот-мачты.
картушка (на компасе)бумажный или слюдяной круг, соединенный с магнитной стрелкой. круг разделен на 32 деления, называемых румбами, и на градусы. каждое деление, кроме того, разделяется на четыре части (на четверти румба).
найтовитьсвязывать веревкой, делать найтов.
фор-марсельпарус второго яруса на фок-мачте.
блинда-фалснасть, с помощью которой поднимался парус блинд. блинда-фал основывался на два одношкивовых блока: один на середине блинда-рея, а другой у топа бушприта.
брам-гинцымаленькие тали, ввязываемые в брам-фал.
ватер-вулингкрепление бушприта с форштевнем. в старом парусном флоте делались тросовые или цепные. на современных парусных судах заменены железными бугелями и скобами.
марса-драйрепснасть бегущего такелажа марса-реев. на марса-драй-репах и марса-фалах подвешен своей серединой марса-рей, когда марсель закреплён.
bulk carrier1) навалочное судно (балкер)
2) ship specifically designed to transport vast amounts of cargoes such as sugar, grain, wine, ore, chemicals, liquefied natural gas; coal and oil. see also lng carrier, tanker, obo ship.
det norske veritasнорвежский веритас (классификационное общество)
dwccdeadweight cargo capacity
maritime register of shippingморской регистр судоходства (рф)
special survey passedочередное освидетельствование пройдено
storeship(also "store ship" or "stores ship")
extremis(also known as "in extremis") the point under international rules of the road (navigation rules) at which the privileged (or stand-on) vessel on collision course with a burdened (or give-way) vessel determines it must maneuver to avoid a collision. prior to extremis, the privileged vessel must maintain course and speed and the burdened vessel must maneuver to avoid collision.
corvette1. a flush-decked sailing warship of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries having a single tier of guns, ranked next below a frigate. called in the united states navy a sloop-of-war.
whaleboat1. a type of open boat that is relatively narrow and pointed at both ends, enabling it to move either forwards or backwards equally well.
first lieutenant1. in the royal navy, the senior lieutenant on board; responsible to the commanding officer for the domestic affairs of the ship`s company. also known as `jimmy the one` or `number one`. removes his cap when visiting the mess decks as token of respect for the privacy of the crew in those quarters. officer in charge of cables on the forecastle.
unship1. to remove from a vessel.
tacking1. zig-zagging so as to sail directly towards the wind (and for some rigs also away from it).
bar pilota bar pilot guides ships over the dangerous sandbars at the mouth of rivers and bays.
gig (captain`s gig)a boat on naval ships at the disposal of the ship`s captain for his or her use in transportation to other ships or to the shore.
hydrofoil1) a boat with wing-like foils mounted on struts below the hull, lifting the hull entirely out of the water at speed and allowing water resistance to be greatly reduced.
2) a craft more or less similar to the hovercraft insofar as it flies over water and thus eliminates friction between the water and the hull. under acceleration it rises above water but remains in contact with the surface through supporting legs.
clean bill of healtha certificate issued by a port indicating that the ship carries no infectious diseases. also called a pratique.
engine order telegrapha communications device used by the pilot to order engineers in the engine room to power the vessel at a certain desired speed. also chadburn.
sailmakera craftsman who makes and repairs sails, working either on shore in a sail loft or aboard a large, ocean-going sailing ship.
fathometera depth finder that uses sound waves to determine the depth of water.
bottlescrewa device for adjusting tension in stays, shrouds and similar lines.
fluyt (also fluit or flute)a dutch transoceanic sailing cargo vessel, square-rigged with two or three masts that were much taller than the masts of a galleon, developed in the 16th century and widely used in the 17th and 18th centuries.
splice the mainbracea euphemism, it is an order given aboard naval vessels to issue the crew with a drink, traditionally grog. the phrase splice the mainbrace is used idiomatically meaning to go ashore on liberty, intending to go out for an evening of drinking.
bermuda sloopa fore-and-aft rigged sailing vessel with bermuda rig developed in bermuda in the 17th century. in its purest form, it is single-masted, although bermuda sloops can have up to three masts, three-masted ships being referred to as schooners. originally gaff rigged, but evolved to use bermuda rig. the bermuda sloop is the basis of nearly all modern sailing yachts.
flatbacka great lakes slang term for a vessel without any self-unloading equipment.
handy billya loose block and tackle with a hook or tail on each end, which can be used wherever it is needed. usually made up of one single and one double block.
metacentric height (also gm)a measurement of the initial static stability of a vessel afloat, calculated as the distance between her centre of gravity and her metacenter. a vessel with a large metacentric height rolls more quickly and therefore more uncomfortably for people on board; a vessel with a small metacentric height will roll sluggishly and may face a greater danger of capsizing.
outboard motora motor mounted externally on the transom of a small boat. the boat may be steered by twisting the whole motor, instead of or in addition to using a rudder.
jack dustya naval stores clerk.
land lubbera person unfamiliar with being on the sea.
sunfisha personal-sized, beach-launched sailing dinghy with a pontoon-type hull, daggerboard, and lateen sail mounted to an un-stayed mast.
lubber`s holea port cut into the bottom of the mizzentop (crow`s-nest) allowing easy entry and exit. it was considered "un-seamanlike" to use this easier method rather than going over the side from the shrouds, and few sailors would risk the scorn of their shipmates by doing so (at least if there were witnesses).
reaching saila specifically designed sail for tighter reaching legs. reaching sails are often used in racing with a true wind angle of 35 to 95 degrees. they are generally used before the wind angle moves aft enough to permit spinnakers to be flown.
rope`s enda summary punishment device.
rogue wavea surprisingly large wave for a given sea state; formally, a wave whose height is more than twice the significant wave height (i.e., the mean of the largest third of waves in a wave record).
wherrya type of boat traditionally used for carrying cargo or passengers on rivers and canals in england, particularly on the river thames and the norfolk and suffolk broads.
battlecruisera type of large capital ship of the first half of the 20th century, similar in size, appearance, and cost to a battleship and typically armed with the same kind of heavy guns, but much more lightly armored (on the scale of cruiser) and therefore faster than a battleship but more vulnerable to damage.
dispatch boata vessel ranging in size from a small boat to a large ship tasked to carry military dispatches from ship to ship, from ship to shore, or, occasionally, from shore to shore.
heavea vessel`s transient, vertical, up-and-down motion.
true bearingan absolute bearing (q.v.) using true north.
piracyan act of robbery or criminal violence at sea by the occupants of one vessel against the occupants of another vessel (thus excluding such acts committed by the crew or passengers of a vessel against others aboard the same vessel). piracy is distinguished from privateering, which is authorized by national authorities and therefore a legitimate form of war-like activity by non-state actors.
packet tradeany regularly scheduled cargo, passenger and mail trade conducted by ship.
cabin boyattendant on passengers and crew. often a young man
by and largeby means into the wind, while large means with the wind. "by and large" is used to indicate all possible situations "the ship handles well both by and large".
shanghaiedcondition of a crewman involuntarily impressed into service on a ship.
self-unloader1) great lakes slang term for a vessel with a conveyor or some other method of unloading the cargo without shoreside equipment.
2) a bulk carrier which is equipped with gear for unloading cargo.
tumblehomehull shape, when viewed in a transverse section, where the widest part of the hull is someway below deck level.
romperin a convoy, a ship that breaks ranks and "romps" ahead.
sheer planin shipbuilding, a diagram showing an elevation of the ship`s sheer viewed from the broadside.
bombay runnerlarge cockroach.
tattle talelight cord attached to a mooring line at two points a few inches apart with a slack section in between (resembling an inch-worm) to indicate when the line is stretching from the ship`s rising with the tide. obviously only used when moored to a fixed dock or pier and only on watches with a flood tide.
reef-bandslong pieces of rough canvas sewed across the sails to give them additional strength.
boomsmasts or yards, lying on board in reserve.
day-blinkmoment at dawn where, from some point on the mast, a lookout can see above low lying mist which envelops the ship.
close-hauledof a vessel beating as close to the wind direction as possible.
hull-downof a vessel when only its upper parts are visible over the horizon.
afloatof a vessel which is floating freely (not aground or sunk). more generally of vessels in service ("the company has 10 ships afloat").
chock-a-blockrigging blocks that are so tight against one another that they cannot be further tightened.
under the weatherserving a watch on the weather side of the ship, exposed to wind and spray.
up-behindslack off quickly and run slack to a belaying point. this order is given when a line or wire has been stopped off or falls have been four-in-hand and the hauling part is to be belayed.
old saltslang for an experienced mariner.
absentee pennantspecial pennant flown to indicate absence of commanding officer, admiral, his chief of staff, or officer whose flag is flying (division, squadron, or flotilla commander).
wearing shiptacking away from the wind in a square-rigged vessel. see also gybe.
garblingthe (illegal) practice of mixing cargo with garbage.
quarterdeckthe aftermost deck of a warship. in the age of sail, the quarterdeck was the preserve of the ship`s officers.
watchstandingthe allocation of crew or staff to a watch
absolute bearingthe bearing of an object in relation to north. either true bearing, using the geographical or true north, or magnetic bearing, using magnetic north. see also bearing and relative bearing.
embayedthe condition where a sailing vessel (especially one which sails poorly to windward) is confined between two capes or headlands by a wind blowing directly onshore.
ship`s companythe crew of a ship.
heading content=headingthe direction a thing`s nose is pointing.
jigger-mastthe fourth mast, although ships with four or more masts were uncommon, or the aft most mast where it is smallest on vessels of less than four masts.
metacenterthe midway point between a vessel`s center of buoyancy when upright and her center of buoyancy when tilted.
cape horn feverthe name of the fake illness a malingerer is pretending to suffer from.
pintlethe pin or bolt on which a ship`s rudder pivots. the pintle rests in the gudgeon.
center of effort (or centre of effort)the point of origin of net aerodynamic force on sails, roughly located in the geometric center of a sail, but the actual position of the center of effort will vary with sail plan, sail trim or airfoil profile, boat trim, and point of sail. also known as center (or centre) of pressure
center of lateral resistance (or centre of lateral resistance)the point of origin of net hydrodynamic resistance on the submerged structure of a boat, especially a sailboat. this is the pivot point about which the boat turns when unbalanced external forces are applied, similar to the center of gravity. on a balanced sailboat the center of effort should align vertically with the center of lateral resistance. if this is not the case the boat will be unbalanced and exhibit either lee helm or weather helm and will be difficult to control.
lightering1) the process of transferring cargo from one vesel to another to reduce the draft of the first vessel. done to allow a vessel to enter a port with limited depth or to help free a grounded vessel.
2) conveying cargo with another vessel known as a lighter from ship to shore, or vice versa.
up-and-downthe relative slackness of an anchor chain where the anchor chain is slack and hangs vertically down from the hawsepipe.
short staythe relative slackness of an anchor chain; this term means somewhat slack, but not vertical nor fully extended.
lee sidethe side of a ship sheltered from the wind (cf. weather side).
lee helmthe tendency of a sailboat to turn to leeward in a strong wind when there is no change in the rudder`s position. this is the opposite of weather helm and is the result of a dynamically unbalanced condition. see also center of lateral resistance.
weather helmthe tendency of a sailboat to turn to windward in a strong wind when there is no change in the rudder`s position. this is the opposite of lee helm and is the result of a dynamically unbalanced condition. see also center of lateral resistance.
screecherthis is a specialty sail whose name comes from combining the names spinnaker and reaching sails and can be used as an upwind genoa sail, reaching sail, or downwind sail.
point upto change the direction of a sailboat so that it is more up wind. to bring the bow windward. also called heading up. this is the opposite of falling off.
wide berthto leave room between two ships moored (berthed) to allow space for maneuver.
outward boundto leave the safety of port, heading for the open ocean.
scandalizeto reduce the area and efficiency of a sail by expedient means (slacking the peak and tricing up the tack) without properly reefing, thus slowing boat speed. also used in the past as a sign of mourning.
furlto roll or gather a sail against its mast or spar.
back and fillto use the advantage of the tide being with you when the wind is not.
bear down or bear awayturn away from the wind, often with reference to a transit.
grogwatered-down pusser`s rum consisting of half a gill with equal part of water, issued to all seamen over twenty. (cpos and pos were issued with neat rum) from the british admiral vernon who, in 1740, ordered the men`s ration of rum to be watered down. he was called "old grogram" because he often wore a grogram coat, and the watered rum came to be called `grog`. often used (illegally) as currency in exchange for favours in quantities prescribed as `sippers` and `gulpers`. additional issues of grog were made on the command `splice the mainbrace` for celebrations or as a reward for performing especially onerous duties. the rn discontinued the practice of issuing rum in 1970. a sailor might repay a colleague for a favour by giving him part or all of his grog ration, ranging from "sippers" (a small amount) via "gulpers" (a larger quantity) to "grounders" (the entire tot).
abel browna sea shanty (song) about a young sailor trying to sleep with a maiden[5
luff and touch herto bring the vessel so close to wind that the sails shake.[6