Глоссарий

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24 января, 2017

Общение промышленных роботов

24 января, 2017

Лучше английский: вымирает ли немецкий язык в концернах?

24 января, 2017

Можно ли спасти татарский язык, лишив русский язык статуса государственного






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Глоссарий морских терминов (рангоут, такелаж, устройство судна)

каботажное судносудно, осуществляющее перевозки вдоль берега.
картушка (на компасе)бумажный или слюдяной круг, соединенный с магнитной стрелкой. круг разделен на 32 деления, называемых румбами, и на градусы. каждое деление, кроме того, разделяется на четыре части (на четверти румба).
топенантыснасти бегучего такелажа, служащие для поддержания рей, выстрелов.
штерттонкий короткий тросовый конец.
гика-топенантснасти, накладывающиеся на конец гика и служащие для поддержания его в горизонтальном положении.
риф-леерснасть на прямом парусе, основанная параллельно верхней шкаторине и служащая для привязывания паруса, риф-сезенями при взятии рифов.
brake horse powerэффективных лошадиных сил
cp (с/p)charter party
dwccdeadweight cargo capacity
special surveyочередное освидетельствование
tankstaнки
lazaret (also lazarette or lazaretto)1. a small stowage locker at the aft end of a boat.
sou`wester1. a storm from the south west.
whaleboat1. a type of open boat that is relatively narrow and pointed at both ends, enabling it to move either forwards or backwards equally well.
unship1. to remove from a vessel.
waterway1. waterway, a navigable body of water.
centreboard (or centerboard)a board or plate lowered through the hull of a dinghy on the centreline to resist leeway.
on the harda boat that has been hauled and is now sitting on dry land.
multipurpose vessela cargo ship that has fittings to carry standard shipping containers and retractable tweendecks that can be moved out of the way so that the ship can carry bulk cargo.
merchant marinera civilian officer or sailor who serves in the merchant marine (q.v.). sometimes such personnel are incorrectly called "merchant marines," but both merchant mariners and marines frown on this term; although merchant mariners are part of the merchant marine, they are civilians and are not in any way marines (q.v.), which are a specialized type of military personnel .
ox-eyea cloud or other weather phenomenon that may be indicative of an upcoming storm.
merchant marinea collective term for all merchant ships registered in a given country and the civilians (especially those of that nationality) who man them; the ships and personnel in combination are said to constitute that country`s merchant marine. called the merchant navy in the united kingdom and some other countries.
turtleback decka deck that has slight positive curvature when viewed in cross-section. the purpose of this curvature is usually to shed water, but in warships it also functions to make the deck more resistant to shells.
dockyarda facility where ships or boats are built and repaired. routinely used as a synonym for shipyard, although dockyard sometimes is associated more closely with a facility used for maintenance and basing activities, while shipyard sometimes is associated more closely with a facility used in construction.
hanka fastener attached to the luff of the headsail that attaches the headsail to the forestay. typical designs include a bronze or plastic hook with a spring-operated gate, or a strip of cloth webbing with a snap fastener.
square riga generic type of sail and rigging arrangement in which the primary driving sails are carried on yards which are perpendicular, or square, to the keel of the vessel and to the masts. a ship mainly so rigged is said to be square-rigged.
monkey bridgea high platform above the wheelhouse offering better visibility to the operator while maneuvering.
coal hulka hulk used to store coal.
act of pardon or act of gracea letter from a state or power authorising action by a privateer. see also letter of marque.
downhaula line used to control either a mobile spar, or the shape of a sail. a downhaul can also be used to retrieve a sail back on deck.
topping lifta line which is part of the rigging on a sailing boat; it applies upward force on a spar or boom. the most common topping lift on a modern sailing boat is attached to the boom
toe-raila low strip running around the edge of the deck like a low bulwark. it may be shortened or have gaps in it to allow water to flow off the deck.
boatwrighta maker of boats, especially of traditional wooden construction.
parrela movable loop or collar, used to fasten a yard or gaff to its respective mast. parrel still allows the spar to be raised or lowered and swivel around the mast. can be made of wire or rope and fitted with beads to reduce friction.
master-at-armsa non-commissioned officer responsible for discipline on a naval ship. standing between the officers and the crew, commonly known in the royal navy as `the buffer`.
red-to-reda passage of two vessels moving in the opposite direction on their port sides, so called because the red navigation light on one of the vessels faces the red light on the other vessel.
safe havena safe harbour, including natural harbours, which provide safety from bad weather or attack.
full-rigged shipa sailing vessel with three or more masts, all of them square-rigged. a full-rigged ship is said to have a "ship rig".
square riggera ship which is square-rigged.
lee shorea shore downwind of a ship. a ship which cannot sail well to windward risks being blown onto a lee shore and grounded.
boatswain`s chair or bosun`s chaira short board or swatch of heavy canvas, secured in a bridle of ropes, used to hoist a man aloft or over the ship`s side for painting and similar work. modern boatswain`s chairs incorporate safety harnesses to prevent the occupant from falling.
wafta signal flag on a vessel.
iron mikea slang term for autopilot.
square meala sufficient quantity of food. meals on board ship were served to the crew on a square wooden plate in harbor or at sea in good weather. food in the royal navy was invariably better or at least in greater quantity than that available to the average landsman. however, while square wooden plates were indeed used on board ship, there is no established link between them and this particular term. the oed gives the earliest reference from the u.s. in the mid-19th century.
rogue wavea surprisingly large wave for a given sea state; formally, a wave whose height is more than twice the significant wave height (i.e., the mean of the largest third of waves in a wave record).
herring bussa type of seagoing fishing vessel used by dutch and flemish herring fishermen from the 15th through the early 19th century.
ship sloopa type of sloop-of-war introduced in the 1740s which had three square-rigged masts (in contrast to the brig sloop introduced in the 1770s, which had two masts).
heavea vessel`s transient, vertical, up-and-down motion.
hangar deckan enclosed deck, usually beneath the flight deck, on an aircraft carrier intended for use as a hangar in servicing and storing aircraft.
porthole or portan opening in a ship`s side, esp. a round one for admitting light and air, fitted with thick glass and, often, a hinged metal cover, a window
day beaconan unlighted fixed structure which is equipped with a dayboard for daytime identification.
chain-shotcannon balls linked with chain used to damage rigging and masts.
bulk cargocommodity cargo that is transported unpackaged in large quantities.
yard numbereach shipyard typically numbers the ships that it has built in consecutive order. one use is to identify the ship before a name has been chosen.
part brass ragsfall out with a friend. from the days when cleaning materials were shared between sailors.
axial firefire oriented towards the ends of the ship; the opposite of broadside fire. in the age of sail this was known as `raking` fire.
shore leavefree time given to officers and crew of a naval vessel when they are off duty and allowed to disembark and spend time on land. see also liberty.
footlooseif the foot of a sail is not secured properly, it is footloose, blowing around in the wind.
azimuth circleinstrument used to take bearings of celestial objects.
bombay runnerlarge cockroach.
forestayslong lines or cables, reaching from the bow of the vessel to the mast heads, used to support the mast.
reef-bandslong pieces of rough canvas sewed across the sails to give them additional strength.
scuttlingmaking a hole in the hull of a vessel or opening seacocks, especially in order to sink a vessel deliberately.
dragon boat (also dragonboat)one of a family of traditional paddled long boats of various designs and sizes found throughout asia, africa and the pacific islands. for competitive events, they are generally rigged with decorative chinese dragon heads and tails. dragon boat races are traditionally held during the annual summer solstice festival.
gash fannyrefuse container or dustbin.
gammon ironthe bow fitting which clamps the bowsprit to the stem.
above-water hullthe hull section of a vessel above the waterline, the visible part of a ship. also, topsides.
tallythe operation of hauling aft the sheets, or drawing them in the direction of the ship`s stern.
center of effort (or centre of effort)the point of origin of net aerodynamic force on sails, roughly located in the geometric center of a sail, but the actual position of the center of effort will vary with sail plan, sail trim or airfoil profile, boat trim, and point of sail. also known as center (or centre) of pressure
long staythe relative slackness of an anchor chain; this term means taut and extended.
topsailthe second sail (counting from the bottom) up a mast. these may be either square sails or fore-and-aft ones, in which case they often "fill in" between the mast and the gaff of the sail below.
beam endsthe sides of a ship. "on her beam ends" may mean the vessel is literally on her side and possibly about to capsize; more often, the phrase means the vessel is listing 45 degrees or more.
weather helmthe tendency of a sailboat to turn to windward in a strong wind when there is no change in the rudder`s position. this is the opposite of lee helm and is the result of a dynamically unbalanced condition. see also center of lateral resistance.
wheel or ship`s wheelthe usual steering device on larger vessels: a wheel with a horizontal axis, connected by cables to the rudder.
brailto furl or truss a sail by pulling it in towards the mast, or the ropes used to do so.
jolliestraditional royal navy nickname for the royal marines.
handsomelywith a slow even motion, as when hauling on a line "handsomely".
fardagewood placed in bottom of ship to keep cargo dry. (see also dunnage)
squared awayyards held rigidly perpendicular to their masts and parallel to the deck. this was rarely the best trim of the yards for efficiency but made a pretty sight for inspections and in harbor. the term is applied to situations and to people figuratively to mean that all difficulties have been resolved or that the person is performing well and is mentally and physically prepared.
midshipman`s hitchan alternative to the blackwall hitch, preferred if the rope is greasy. made by first forming a blackwall hitch and then taking the underneath part and placing over the bill of the hook.[24
corinthianan amateur yachter.[13][14
abaft the beamfurther aft than the beam: a relative bearing of greater than 90 degrees from the bow: "two points abaft the beam, starboard side". that would describe "an object lying 22.5 degrees toward the rear of the ship, as measured clockwise from a perpendicular line from the right side, center, of the ship, toward the horizon."[2