Contact with a substance that occurs once or for only a short time (up to 14 days) [compare with intermediate duration exposure and chronic exposure].
A biologic response to exposure to multiple substances that equals the sum of responses of all the individual substances added together [compare with antagonistic effect and synergistic effect].
|adverse health effect|
A change in body function or cell structure that might lead to disease or health problems
Requiring oxygen [compare with anaerobic]. аэробный;
- Requiring the absence of oxygen [compare with aerobic].
- In adhesives, a bonding method that uses its own chemical reaction to complete the adhesion
|analytic epidemiologic study|
A study that evaluates the association between exposure to hazardous substances and disease by testing scientific hypotheses.
- A biologic response to exposure to multiple substances that is less than would be expected if the known effects of the individual substances were added together [compare with additive effect a...
An average or expected amount of a substance or radioactive material in a specific environment, or typical amounts of substances that occur naturally in an environment.
|biologic indicators of exposure study|
A study that uses (a) biomedical testing or (b) the measurement of a substance [an analyte], its metabolite, or another marker of exposure in human body fluids or tissues to confirm human exposure...
Measuring hazardous substances in biologic materials (such as blood, hair, urine, or breath) to determine whether exposure has occurred. a blood test for lead is an example of biologic monitoring....
The transfer of substances from the environment to plants, animals, and humans.
Testing of persons to find out whether a change in a body function might have occurred because of exposure to a hazardous substance.
The total amount of a substance in the body. some substances build up in the body because they are stored in fat or bone or because they leave the body very slowly.
A theoretical risk for getting cancer if exposed to a substance every day for 70 years (a lifetime exposure). the true risk might be lower.
|cas registry number|
A unique number assigned to a substance or mixture by the american chemical society abstracts service [external link].
- A medical or epidemiologic evaluation of one person or a small group of people to gather information about specific health conditions and past exposures.
- Изучение отдельного случая,...
A study that compares exposures of people who have a disease or condition (cases) with people who do not have the disease or condition (controls). exposures that are more common among the cases ma...
- Occurring over a long time [compare with acute].
A review of an unusual number, real or perceived, of health events (for example, reports of cancer) grouped together in time and location. cluster investigations are designed to confirm case repor...
|community assistance panel|
|community assistance panel (cap)|
A group of people from a community and from health and environmental agencies who work with atsdr to resolve issues and problems related to hazardous substances in the community. cap members work ...
|comparison value (cv)|
Calculated concentration of a substance in air, water, food, or soil that is unlikely to cause harmful (adverse) health effects in exposed people. the cv is used as a screening level during the pu...
|completed exposure pathway|
|delayed health effect|
A disease or an injury that happens as a result of exposures that might have occurred in the past.
Referring to the skin. for example, dermal absorption means passing through the skin.
Contact with (touching) the skin [see route of exposure].
The study of the amount and distribution of a disease in a specified population by person, place, and time.
A system of ongoing registration of all cases of a particular disease or health condition in a defined population.
|dose (for chemicals that are not radioactive)|
The amount of a substance to which a person is exposed over some time period. dose is a measurement of exposure. dose is often expressed as milligram (amount) per kilogram (a measure of body weigh...
|dose (for radioactive chemicals)|
The radiation dose is the amount of energy from radiation that is actually absorbed by the body. this is not the same as measurements of the amount of radiation in the environment.
The relationship between the amount of exposure [dose] to a substance and the resulting changes in body function or health (response).
Soil, water, air, biota (plants and animals), or any other parts of the environment that can contain contaminants.
|environmental media and transport mechanism|
Environmental media include water, air, soil, and biota (plants and animals). transport mechanisms move contaminants from the source to points where human exposure can occur. the environmental med...
public health surveillance;
- The study of the distribution and determinants of disease or health status in a population; the study of the occurrence and causes of health effects in humans.
- The study of diseases...
The process of finding out how people come into contact with a hazardous substance, how often and for how long they are in contact with the substance, and how much of the substance they are in con...
The collection and analysis of site-specific information and biologic tests (when appropriate) to determine whether people have been exposed to hazardous substances.
The route a substance takes from its source (where it began) to its end point (where it ends), and how people can come into contact with (or get exposed to) it. an exposure pathway has five parts:... completed exposure pathway;
A system of ongoing followup of people who have had documented environmental exposures.
A method of estimating the amount of people`s past exposure to hazardous substances. computer and approximation methods are used when past information is limited, not available, or missing.
|geographic information system (gis)|
A mapping system that uses computers to collect, store, manipulate, analyze, and display data. for example, gis can show the concentration of a contaminant within a community in relation to points...
Training sessions for physicians and other health care providers about health topics.
|hazardous substance release and health effects database (hazdat)|
The scientific and administrative database system developed by atsdr to manage data collection, retrieval, and analysis of site-specific information on hazardous substances, community health conce...
Potentially harmful substances that have been released or discarded into the environment.
A review of available information or collection of new data to respond to a specific health question or request for information about a potential environmental hazard. health consultations are foc...
The collection and evaluation of information about the health of community residents. this information is used to describe or count the occurrence of a disease, symptom, or clinical measure and to...
- The process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health.
- The act of improving the health of a particular community or of the public generally, e.g. usi...
|health statistics review|
The analysis of existing health information (i.e., from death certificates, birth defects registries, and cancer registries) to determine if there is excess disease in a specific population, geogr...