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Oil glossary

acid treatingA refining process in which unfinished petroleum products, such as gasoline, kerosene, and lubricating oil stocks, are contacted with sulfuric acid to improve their color, odor, and other properties
additive stabilityThe ability of additives in the fluid to resist changes in their performance during storage or use.
adhesive wearIs often referred to as galling, scuffing, scoring, or seizing. It happens when sliding surfaces contact one another, causing fragments to be pulled from one surface and to adhere to the other.
agglomerationThe potential of the system for particle attraction and adhesion.
anti-foam agentOne of two types of additives used to reduce foaming in petroleum products: silicone oil to break up large surface bubbles, and various kinds of polymers that decrease the amount of small bubbles entrained in the oils.
anti-friction bearingA rolling contact type bearing in which the rotating or moving member is supported or guided by means of ball or roller elements. Does not mean without friction.
antiwear additivesImprove the service life of tribological elements operating in the boundary lubrication regime. Antiwear compounds (for example, ZDDP and TCP) start decomposing at 90 degrees to 100 degrees C and even at a lower temperature if water (25 to 50 ppm) is present.
astm d5533 sequence iiifASTM Test Method D 5533, the Sequence IIIE gasoline engine test, has been correlated with vehicles used in high-temperature service prior to 1988, particularly with regard to oil thickening and valve train wear.
axial-load bearingA bearing in which the load acts in the direction of the axis of rotation.
bellows sealA type of mechanical seal which utilizes bellows for providing secondary sealing and spring-type loading.
boundary lubricationForm of lubrication between two rubbing surfaces without development of a full-fluid lubricating film. Boundary lubrication can be made more effective by including additives in the lubricating oil that provide a stronger oil film, thus preventing excessive friction and possible scoring. There are varying degrees of boundary lubrication, depending on the severity of service. For mild conditions, oiliness agents may be used; by plating out on metal surfaces in a thin but durable film, oiliness agents prevent scoring under some conditions that are too severe for a straight mineral oil. Compounded oils, which are formulated with polar fatty oils, are sometimes used for this purpose. Anti-wear additives are commonly used in more severe boundary lubrication applications. The more severe cases of boundary lubrication are defined as extreme pressure conditions; they are met with lubricants containing EP additives that prevent sliding surfaces from fusing together at high local temperatures and pressures.
brinellingPermanent deformation of the bearing surfaces where the rollers (or balls) contact the races. Brinelling results from excessive load or impact on stationary bearings. It is a form of mechanical damage in which metal is displaced or upset without attrition.
carbon residueCoked material remaining after an oil has been exposed to high temperatures under controlled conditions.
cartridge sealA completely self-contained assembly including seal, gland, sleeve, mating ring, etc., usually needing no installation measurement.
catalytic converterAn integral part of vehicle emission control systems since 1975. Oxidizing converters remove hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide (CO) from exhaust gases, while reducing converters control nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. Both use noble metal (platinum, palladium or rhodium) catalysts that can be "poisoned" by lead compounds in the fuel or lubricant.
causticA highly alkaline substance such as sodium hydroxide.
cavitation erosionA material-damaging process which occurs as a result of vaporous cavitation. "Cavitation" refers to the occurrence or formation of gas- or vapor- filled pockets in flowing liquids due to the hydrodynamic generation of low pressure (below atmospheric pressure). This damage results from the hammering action when cavitation bubbles implode in the flow stream. Ultra-high pressures caused by the collapse of the vapor bubbles produce deformation, material failure and, finally, erosion of the surfaces.
cellulose mediaA filter material made from plant fibers. Because cellulose is a natural material, its fibers are rough in texture and vary in size and shape. Compared to synthetic media, these characteristics create a higher restriction to the flow of fluids.
centralized lubricationA system of lubrication in which a metered amount of lubricant or lubricants for the bearing surfaces of a machine or group of machines are supplied from a central location.
chromatographyAn analytical technique whereby a complex substance is adsorbed on a solid or liquid substrate and progressively eluted by a flow of a substance (the eluant) in which the components of the substance under investigation are differentially soluble. The eluant can be a liquid or a gas. When the substrate is filter paper and the eluant a liquid, a chromatogram of colored bands can be developed by use of indicators. For gas chromatography, electronic detectors are normally used to indicate passage of the various components from the system.
cleanable filterA filter element which, when loaded, can be restored by a suitable process, to an acceptable percentage of its original dirt capacity.
cleanliness levelA measure of relative freedom from contaminants.
collapse pressureThe minimum differential pressure that an element is designed to withstand without permanent deformation.
compounded oilA petroleum oil to which has been added other chemical substances.
contaminant capacityThe weight of a specified artificial contaminant which must be added to the influent to produce a given differential pressure across a filter at specified conditions. Used as an indication of relative service life.
contaminant lockA particle or fiber-induced jam caused by solid contaminants.
corrosion inhibitorAdditive for protecting lubricated metal surfaces against chemical attack by water or other contaminants. There are several types of corrosion inhibitors. Polar compounds wet the metal surface preferentially, protecting it with a film of oil. Other compounds may absorb water by incorporating it in a water-in-oil emulsion so that only the oil touches the metal surface. Another type of corrosion inhibitor combines chemically with the metal to present a non-reactive surface.
dehydratorA separator that removes water from the system fluid.
depleteThe depletion of additives expressed as an approximate percentage.
desorptionOpposite of absorption or adsorption. In filtration, it relates to the downstream release of particles previously retained by the filter.
detergent oilIs a lubricating oil possessing special sludge-dispersing properties usually conferred on the oil by the incorporation of special additives. Detergent oils hold formed sludge particles in suspension and thus promote cleanliness especially in internal-combustion engines. However detergent oils do not contain “detergents” such as those used for cleaning of laundry or dishes. Also detergent oils do not clean already “dirty” engines, but rather keep in suspension the sludge that petroleum oil forms so that the engine remains cleaner for longer period. The formed sludge particles are either filtered out by Oil Filters or drained out when oil is changed.
disposableA filter element intended to be discarded and replaced after one service cycle.
dissolved airAir which is dispersed in a fluid to form a mixture.
dissolved waterWater which is dispersed in the fluid to form a mixture.
double sealTwo mechanical seals designed to permit a liquid or gas barrier fluid between the seals mounted back-to-back or face-to-face.
dual-line systemA positive displacement terminating (oil, or grease) lubrication system that employs two main lines supplied from a pump connected to a 4-way (reverser) valve. Pressure in one main line (while the other is open to tank) causes the measuring piston(s) in the dual-line valve(s) to stroke in one direction dispensing lubricant to one group of lube points. Switching the 4-way (reverser) valve directs pump flow to the second main line and opens the first main line to tank. This allows pressure to build in the second main line causing the dual-line valve(s) measuring piston(s) to stroke back to their original position dispensing lubricant to a second group of lube points. The system is a parallel type and each dual-line valves operates independently of any other in the system.
emission spectrometerWorks on the basis that atoms of metallic and other particular elements emit light at characteristic wavelengths when they are excited in a flame, arc, or spark. Excited light is directed through an entrance slit in the spectrometer. This light penetrates the slit, falls on a grate, and is dispersed and reflected. The spectrometer is calibrated by a series of standard samples containing known amounts of the elements of interest. By exciting these standard samples, an analytical curve can be established which gives the relationship between the light intensity and its concentration in the fluid.
emulsionIntimate mixture of oil and water, generally of a milky or cloudy appearance. Emulsions may be of two types: oil-in water (where water is the continuous phase) and water-in-oil (where water is the discontinuous phase).
engine depositsHard or persistent accumulation of sludge, varnish and carbonaceous residues due to blow-by of unburned and partially burned fuel, or the partial breakdown of the crankcase lubricant. Water from the condensation of combustion products, carbon, residues from fuel or lubricating oil additives, dust and metal particles also contribute.
extreme pressure (ep) additiveLubricant additive that prevents sliding metal surfaces from seizing under conditions of extreme pressure. At the high local temperatures associated with metal-to-metal contact, an EP additive combines chemically with the metal to form a surface film that prevents the welding of opposing asperities, and the consequent scoring that is destructive to sliding surfaces under high loads. Reactive compounds of sulfur, chlorine, or phosphorus are used to form these inorganic films.
face sealA device that prevents leakage of fluids along rotating shafts. Sealing is accomplished by a stationary primary seal ring bearing against the face of a mating ring mounted on a shaft. Axial pressure maintains the contact between the seal ring and the mating ring.
filter elementThe porous device which performs the actual process of filtration.
filter life testA type of filter capacity test in which a clogging contaminant is added to the influent of a filter, under specified test conditions, to produce a given rise in pressure drop across the filter or until a specified reduction of flow is reached. Filter life may be expressed as test time required to reach terminal conditions at a specified contaminant addition rate.
filtration (beta) ratioThe ratio of the number of particles greater than a given size in the influent fluid to the number of particles greater than the same size in the effluent fluid.
fixed displacement pumpA pump in which the displacement per cycle cannot be varied.
fluid compatibilityThe suitability of filtration medium and seal materials for service with the fluid involved.
flushingA fluid circulation process designed to remove contamination from the wetted surfaces of a fluid system.
fretting corrosionCan take place when two metals are held in contact and subjected to repeated small sliding, relative motions. Other names for this type of corrosion include wear oxidation, friction oxidation, chafing, and brinelling.
ftir1) Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. A test where infrared light absorption is used for assessing levels of soot, sulfates, oxidation, nitro-oxidation, glycol, fuel, and water contaminants.
2) flight test instrumentation requirements
fzg four square gear oil testUsed in developing industrial gear lubricants to meet equipment manufacturer`s specifications. The FZG test equipment consists of two gear sets, arranged in a four square configuration, driven by an electric motor. The test gear set is run in the lubricant at gradually increased load stages until failure, which is the point at which a 10 milligram weight loss by the gear set is recorded. Also called Niemann Four Square Gear Oil Test.
gear oilA high-quality oil with good oxidation stability, load-carrying capacity, rust protection, and resistance to foaming, for service in gear housings and enclosed chain drives. Specially formulated industrial EP gear oils are used where highly loaded gear sets or excessive sliding action (as in worm gears) is encountered.
gravity separationA method of separating two components from a mixture. Under the influence of gravity, separation of immiscible phases (gas-solid, liquid-solid, liquid-liquid, solid-solid) allows the denser phase to settle out.
h1 lubricantFood-grade lubricants used in food processing environments where there is some possibility of incidental food contact. Lubricant formulations may only be composed of one or more approved basestocks, additives and thickeners (if grease) listed in Guidelines of Security Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 21, §178.3570.
helical gearA cylindrical gear wheel which has slanted teeth that follow the pitch surface in a helical manner.
hydraulic fluidFluid serving as the power transmission medium in a hydraulic system. The most commonly used fluids are petroleum oils, synthetic lubricants, oil-water emulsions, and water-glycol mixtures. The principal requirements of a premium hydraulic fluid are proper viscosity, high viscosity index, anti-wear protection (if needed), good oxidation stability, adequate pour point, good demulsibility, rust inhibition, resistance to foaming, and compatibility with seal materials. Anti-wear oils are frequently used in compact, high-pressure, and capacity pumps that require extra lubrication protection.
hydraulic pumpA device which converts mechanical force and motion into hydraulic fluid power by means of producing flow.
hydro turbineA rotary engine whose energy is generated from moving water.
hydrostatic lubricationA system of lubrication in which the lubricant is supplied under sufficient external pressure to separate the opposing surfaces by a fluid film.
influentThe fluid entering a component.
infrared spectroscopyAn analytical method using infrared absorption for assessing the properties of used oil and certain contaminants suspended therein. See FTIR.
intercooler1) A device which cools a gas between the compressive steps of a multiple stage compressor.
2) промежуточный теплообменник
iso solid contaminant code (iso 4406)A code assigned on the basis of the number of particles per unit volume greater than 5 and 15 micrometers in size. Range numbers identify each increment in the particle population throughout the spectrum of levels.
jicJoint Industry Conference
karl fischer reagent methodThe standard laboratory test to measure the water content of mineral base fluids. In this method, water reacts quantitatively with the Karl Fischer reagent. This reagent is a mixture of iodine, sulfur dioxide, pyridine, and methanol. When excess iodine exists, electric current can pass between two platinum electrodes or plates. The water in the sample reacts with the iodine. When the water is no longer free to react with iodine, an excess of iodine depolarizes the electrodes, signaling the end of the test.
laminar particlesParticles generated in rolling element bearings which have been flattened out by a rolling contact.
light obscurationThe degree of light blockage as reflected in the transmitted light impinging on the photodiode.
lip sealAn elastomeric or metallic seal that prevents leakage in dynamic and static applications by a scraping or wiping action at a controlled interference between itself and the mating surface.
mechanical sealA device which works to join together systems or mechanisms in order to prevent leakage, contain pressure or exclude contamination.
micro1) Millionth
2) микро-
micrometreSee Micron.
milliThousandth
mineral seal oilA distillation fraction between kerosene and gas oil, widely used as a solvent oil in gas adsorption processes, as a lubricant for the rolling of metal foil, and as a base oil in many specialty formulations. Mineral seal oil takes its name – not from any sealing function – but from the fact that it originally replaced oil derived from seal blubber for use as an illuminant for signal lamps and lighthouses.
mixed filmA type of lubrication that features a combination of full-film and thin-film elements.
motor oilOil that is used to lubricate the moving components of an internal-combustion engine.
naphthenicA type of petroleum fluid derived from naphthenic crude oil, containing a high proportion of closed-ring methylene groups.
nasa1) National Aeronautics and Space Administration
2) naval aircraft safety activity
3) national aeronautics and space administration (u.s.)
nitrationNitration products are formed during the fuel combustion process in internal combustion engines. Most nitration products are formed when an excess of oxygen is present. These products are highly acidic, form deposits in combustion areas and rapidly accelerate oxidation.
nonwoven mediumA filter medium composed of a mat of fibers.
oil analysisThe routine activity of analyzing lubricant properties and suspended contaminants for the purpose of monitoring and reporting timely, meaningful and accurate information on lubricant and machine condition.
oil samplingA procedure which involves the collection of a volume of fluid from lubricated or hydraulic machinery for the purpose of performing oil analysis. Samples are typically drawn into a clean bottle which is sealed and sent to a laboratory for analytical work.
oilinessThat property of a lubricant that produces low friction under conditions of boundary lubrication. The lower the friction, the greater the oiliness.
particulatesParticles made up of a wide range of natural materials (e.g., pollen, dust, resins), combined with man-made pollutant (e.g., smoke particles, metallic ash); in sufficient concentrations, particulates can be a respiratory irritant.
pinionThe smaller of two mating or meshing gears; can be either the driving or the driven gear.
pleated filterA filter element whose medium consists of a series of uniform folds and has the geometric form of a cylinder, cone, disc, plate, etc. Synonymous with "convoluted" and "corrugated".
pour pointLowest temperature at which an oil or distillate fuel is observed to flow, when cooled under conditions prescribed by test method ASTM D 97. The pour point is 3°C (5°F) above the temperature at which the oil in a test vessel shows no movement when the container is held horizontally for five seconds.
process oilAn oil that serves as a temporary or permanent component of a manufactured products. Aromatic process oils have good solvency characteristics; their applications include proprietary chemical formulations, ink oils, and extenders in synthetic rubbers. Naphthenic process oils are characterized by low pour points and good solvency properties. Paraffinic process oils are characterized by low aromatic content and light color.
refrigeration compressorA special type of compressor typically used for refrigeration, heat pumping and air conditioning. They are made to turn low-pressure gases into high-pressure and high-temperature gases. The three main types of refrigeration compressors are screw compressors, scroll compressors and piston compressors.
sae viscosityThe viscosity classification of a motor oil according to the system developed by the Society of Automotive Engineers and now in general use. “Winter” grades are defined by viscosity measurements at low temperatures and have “W” as a suffix, while “Summer” grades are defined by viscosity at 100ํํํํํํํ°ํ C and have no suffix. Multigrade oils meet both a winter and a summer definition and have designations such as SAE 10W-30, etc.
scuffing particlesLarge twisted and discolored metallic particles resulting from adhesive wear due to complete lubricant film breakdown.
servovalveA valve which modulates output as a function of an input command.
severe slidingLarge ferrous particles which are produced by sliding contacts. Trend is important to determine whether abnormal wear is taking place.
shear stressFrictional force overcome in sliding one "layer" of fluid along another, as in any fluid flow. The shear stress of a petroleum oil or other Newtonian fluid at a given temperature varies directly with shear rate (velocity). The ratio between shear stress and shear rate is constant; this ratio is termed viscosity of a Newtonian fluid, the greater the shear stress as a function of rate of shear. In a non-Newtonian fluid
siltingA failure generally associated with a valve which movements are restricted due to small particles that have wedged in between critical clearances (e.g., the spool and bore.)
single-pass testFilter performance tests in which contaminant which passes through a test filter is not allowed to recirculate back to the test filter.
specific gravity (liquid)The ratio of the weight of a given volume of liquid to the weight of an equal volume of water.
spur gearThis is the simplest variation of gear. It consists of a cylinder or disk, with the teeth projecting radially. Each tooth edge is straight and aligned parallel to the axis of rotation. Such gears can be meshed together correctly only if they are fitted to parallel axles.
straight mineral oilPetroleum oil containing no additives. Straight mineral oils include such diverse products as low-cost once-through lubricants and thoroughly refined white oils. Most high-quality lubricants, however, contain additives.
swarfThe cuttings, and grinding fines that result from metal working operations.
thermographyThe use of infrared thermography whereby temperatures of a wide variety of targets can be measured remotely and without contact. This is accomplished by measuring the infrared energy radiating from the surface of the target and converting this measurement to an equivalent surface temperature.
thin film lubricationA condition of lubrication in which the film thickness of the lubricant is such that the friction between the surfaces is determined by the properties of the surfaces as well as by the viscosity of the lubricant.
three-body abrasionA particulate wear process by which particles are pressed between two sliding surfaces.
tribologyThe science and technology of interacting surfaces in relative motion, including the study of lubrication, friction and wear. Tribological wear is wear that occurs as a result of relative motion at the surface.
vacuum dehydrationA method which involves drying or freeing of moisture through a vacuum process.
vacuum distillationA distillation method which involved reducing the pressure above a liquid mixture to be distilled to less than its vapor pressure (usually less than atmospheric pressure). This causes evaporation of the most volatile liquid(s) - those with the lowest boiling points. This method works on the principle that boiling occurs when a liquid`s vapor pressure exceeds the ambient pressure. It can be used with or without heating the solution.
vacuum separatorA separator that utilizes subatmospheric pressure to remove certain gases and liquids from another liquid because of their difference in vapor pressure.
vapor pressure-reid (rvp)Measure of the pressure of vapor accumulated above a sample of gasoline or other volatile fuel in a standard bomb at 100¦F (37.8¦C). Used to predict the vapor locking tendencies of the fuel in a vehicle`s fuel system. Controlled by law in some areas to limit air pollution from hydrocarbon evaporation while dispensing.
viscosity gradeAny of a number of systems which characterize lubricants according to viscosity for particular applications, such as industrial oils, gear oils, automotive engine oils, automotive gear oils, and aircraft piston engine oils.
viscosity index (vi)A commonly used measure of a fluid`s change of viscosity with temperature. The higher the viscosity index, the smaller the relative change in viscosity with temperature.
water-glycol fluidA fluid whose major constituents are water and one or more glycols or polyglycols.
wear debrisParticles that are detached from machine surfaces as a result of wear and corrosion. Also known as wear particles.
wear inhibitorAn additive which protects the rubbing surfaces against wear, particularly from scuffing, if the hydrodynamic film is ruptured.