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Oil glossary

bomb oxidationA test for the oxidation stability of a product obtained by sealing it in a closed container with oxygen under pressure. The drop in pressure of the oxygen is a measure of the amount of oxidation that...
axial-load bearingA bearing in which the load acts in the direction of the axis of rotation.
automatic transmission fluid (atf)Fluid for automatic, hydraulic transmissions in motor vehicles.
atomic absorption spectroscopyMeasures the radiation absorbed by chemically unbound atoms by analyzing the transmitted energy relative to the incident energy at each frequency. The procedure consists of diluting the fluid sample w...
astm d5533 sequence iiifASTM Test Method D 5533, the Sequence IIIE gasoline engine test, has been correlated with vehicles used in high-temperature service prior to 1988, particularly with regard to oil thickening and valve ...
astm d5302 sequence veASTM Test Method D 5302, the Sequence VE gasoline engine test, has been correlated with vehicles used in stop-and-go service prior to 1988, particularly with regard to sludge and valve train wear.
astm d2670 pin and v-block testASTM Test Method D2670 is for measuring the antiwear properties of liquid lubricants. The load is applied to the jaws and maintained by a toothed wheel. The wear is a function of the number of the too...
asperitiesMicroscopic projections on metal surfaces resulting from normal surface-finishing processes. Interference between opposing asperities in sliding or rolling applications is a source of friction, and ca...
aqueous decontaminationRemoval of a chemical or biological hazard with a water-base solution
api gravityA gravity scale established by the American Petroleum Institute and in general use in the petroleum industry, the unit being called "the A.P.I. degree." This unit is defined in terms of specific gravi...
плотность (нефтепродукта) в градусах американского нефтяного института;
api engine service categoriesGasoline and diesel engine oil quality levels established jointly by API, SAE, and ASTM, and sometimes called SAE or API/SAE categories; formerly called API Engine Service Classifications.
background contaminationThe total of the extraneous particles which are introduced in the process of obtaining, storing, moving, transferring and analyzing a fluid sample.
ball bearingAn antifriction rolling type bearing containing rolling elements in the form of balls.
base numberThe amount of acid, expressed in terms of the equivalent number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide, required to neutralize all basic constituents present in 1 g of sample
boiling rangeFor a mixture of substances, such as a petroleum fraction, the temperature interval between the initial and final boiling points.
blow-byPassage of unburned fuel and combustion gases past the piston rings of internal combustion engines, resulting in fuel dilution and contamination of the crankcase oil.
black oilsLubricants containing asphaltic materials, which impart extra adhesiveness, that are used for open gears and steel cables.
biodegradation1) The chemical breakdown of materials by living organisms in the environment. The process depends on certain microorganisms, such as bacteria, yeast, and fungi, which break down molecules for sustena...
биохимическое разложение;
biocidesAdditive designed to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in liquids
beta-ratioThe ratio of the number of particles greater than a given size in the influent fluid to the number of particles greater than the same size in the effluent fluid, under specified test conditions (see "...
beta ratingThe method of comparing filter performance based on efficiency. This is done using the Multi-Pass Test which counts the number of particles of a given size before and after fluid passes through a filt...
bernouilli’s theoryIf no work is done on or by a flowing, frictionless liquid, its energy, due to pressure and velocity, remains constant at all points along the streamline.
bellows sealA type of mechanical seal which utilizes bellows for providing secondary sealing and spring-type loading.
base oilA base oil is a base stock or blend of base stocks used in an API-licensed engine oil.
базовое масло (для бурового раствора);
antiwear additivesImprove the service life of tribological elements operating in the boundary lubrication regime. Antiwear compounds (for example, ZDDP and TCP) start decomposing at 90 degrees to 100 degrees C and even...
antistatic additiveAn additive that increases the conductivity of a hydrocarbon fuel to hasten the dissipation of electrostatic charges during high-speed dispensing, thereby reducing the fire/explosion hazard.
anti-oxidantsProlong the induction period of a base oil in the presence of oxidizing conditions and catalyst metals at elevated temperatures. The additive is consumed and degradation products increase not only wit...
adsorbent filterA filter medium primarily intended to hold soluble and insoluble contaminants on its surface by molecular adhesion.
adhesive wearIs often referred to as galling, scuffing, scoring, or seizing. It happens when sliding surfaces contact one another, causing fragments to be pulled from one surface and to adhere to the other.
additive stabilityThe ability of additives in the fluid to resist changes in their performance during storage or use.
additive levelThe total percentage of all additives in an oil. (Expressed in % of mass (weight) or % of volume)
acid treatingA refining process in which unfinished petroleum products, such as gasoline, kerosene, and lubricating oil stocks, are contacted with sulfuric acid to improve their color, odor, and other properties
acid sludgeThe residue left after treating petroleum oil with sulfuric acid for the removal of impurities. It is a black, viscous substance containing the spent acid and impurities.
acid numberThe quantity of base, expressed in milligrams of potassium hydroxide, that is required to neutralize the acidic constituents in 1 g of sample.
ac fine test dust (acftd)A test contaminant used to assess both filters and the contaminant sensitivity of all types of tribological mechanisms.
absorbent filterA filter medium that holds contaminant by mechanical means.
absolute filtration ratingThe diameter of the largest hard spherical particle that will pass through a filter under specified test conditions. This is an indication of the largest opening in the filter elements.
adsorptive filtrationThe attraction to, and retention of particles in, a filter medium by electrostatic forces, or by molecular attraction between the particles and the medium.
agglomerationThe potential of the system for particle attraction and adhesion.
agma lubricant numbersAGMA specification covering gear lubricants. The viscosity ranges of the AGMA numbers (or grades) conform to the International Standards Organization (ISO) viscosity classification system (see ISO vis...
anti-friction bearingA rolling contact type bearing in which the rotating or moving member is supported or guided by means of ball or roller elements. Does not mean without friction.
anti-foam agentOne of two types of additives used to reduce foaming in petroleum products: silicone oil to break up large surface bubbles, and various kinds of polymers that decrease the amount of small bubbles entr...
aniline pointThe minimum temperature for complete miscibility of equal volumes of aniline and the sample under test ASTM Method D611. A product of high aniline point will be low in aromatics and naphthenes and, th...
analytical ferrographyThe magnetic precipitation and subsequent analysis of wear debris from a fluid sample This approach involves passing a volume of fluid over a chemically treated microscope slide which is supported ove...
aluminum alloyWhite particles which indicate wear of aluminum component such as a casing wall.
almen ep lubricant testerA journal bearing machine used for determining the load-carrying capacity or Extreme Pressure properties (EP) of gear lubricants.
air-gap solenoidA solenoid that is sealed to prevent leakage of the liquid indo the plunger cavity
air/oil systemsA lubrication system in which small measured quantities of oil are introduced into an air/oil mixing device which is connected to a lube line that terminates at a bearing, or other lubrication point. ...
air breatherA device permitting air movement between atmosphere and the component in/on which it is installed.
air bleederA device for removal of air from a hydraulic fluid line.