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Oil glossary

ac fine test dust (acftd)A test contaminant used to assess both filters and the contaminant sensitivity of all types of tribological mechanisms.
anti-foam agentOne of two types of additives used to reduce foaming in petroleum products: silicone oil to break up large surface bubbles, and various kinds of polymers that decrease the amount of small bubbles entrained in the oils.
antiwear additivesImprove the service life of tribological elements operating in the boundary lubrication regime. Antiwear compounds (for example, ZDDP and TCP) start decomposing at 90 degrees to 100 degrees C and even at a lower temperature if water (25 to 50 ppm) is present.
astm d2670 pin and v-block testASTM Test Method D2670 is for measuring the antiwear properties of liquid lubricants. The load is applied to the jaws and maintained by a toothed wheel. The wear is a function of the number of the tooth which needs to be engaged to keep the load constant for a fixed time.
atomic absorption spectroscopyMeasures the radiation absorbed by chemically unbound atoms by analyzing the transmitted energy relative to the incident energy at each frequency. The procedure consists of diluting the fluid sample with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and directly aspirating the solution. The actual process of atomization involves reducing the solution to a fine spray, dissolving it, and finally vaporizing it with a flame. The vaporization of the metal particles depends upon their time in the flame, the flame temperature, and the composition of the flame gas. The spectrum occurs because atoms in the vapor state can absorb radiation at certain well-defined characteristic wave lengths. The wave length bands absorbed are very narrow and differ for each element. In addition, the absorption of radiant energy by electronic transitions from ground to excited state is essentially and absolute measure of the number of atoms in the flame and is, therefore, the concentration of the element in a sample.
automatic transmission fluid (atf)Fluid for automatic, hydraulic transmissions in motor vehicles.
bernouilli’s theoryIf no work is done on or by a flowing, frictionless liquid, its energy, due to pressure and velocity, remains constant at all points along the streamline.
blow-byPassage of unburned fuel and combustion gases past the piston rings of internal combustion engines, resulting in fuel dilution and contamination of the crankcase oil.
breakdown maintenanceMaintenance performed after a machine has failed to return it to an operating state.
bubble point1) The differential gas pressure at which the first steady stream of gas bubbles is emitted from a wetted filter element under specified test conditions.
2) значение давления, при котором из жидкости начинают выделяться пузырьки растворенного газа с
bypass filtrationA system of filtration in which only a portion of the total flow of a circulating fluid system passes through a filter at any instant or in which a filter having its own circulating pump operates in parallel to the main flow.
capillary viscometerA viscometer in which the oil flows through a capillary tube.
carcinogen1) A cancer-causing substance. Certain petroleum products are classified as potential carcinogens OSHA criteria. Suppliers are required to identify such products as potential carcinogens on package labels and Material Safety Data Sheets.
2) a substance that causes cancer.
cartridge sealA completely self-contained assembly including seal, gland, sleeve, mating ring, etc., usually needing no installation measurement.
catalytic converterAn integral part of vehicle emission control systems since 1975. Oxidizing converters remove hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide (CO) from exhaust gases, while reducing converters control nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. Both use noble metal (platinum, palladium or rhodium) catalysts that can be "poisoned" by lead compounds in the fuel or lubricant.
causticA highly alkaline substance such as sodium hydroxide.
centrifugal separatorA separator that removes immiscible fluid and solid contaminants that have a different specific gravity than the fluid being purified by accelerating the fluid mechanically in a circular path and using the radial acceleration component to isolate these contaminants.
chromatographyAn analytical technique whereby a complex substance is adsorbed on a solid or liquid substrate and progressively eluted by a flow of a substance (the eluant) in which the components of the substance under investigation are differentially soluble. The eluant can be a liquid or a gas. When the substrate is filter paper and the eluant a liquid, a chromatogram of colored bands can be developed by use of indicators. For gas chromatography, electronic detectors are normally used to indicate passage of the various components from the system.
clay filtrationA refining process using fuller’s earth (activated clay), bauxite or other mineral to absorb minute solids from lubricating oil, as well as remove traces of water, acids, and polar compounds.
cleanable filterA filter element which, when loaded, can be restored by a suitable process, to an acceptable percentage of its original dirt capacity.
contamination controlA broad subject which applies to all types of material systems (including both biological and engineering). It is concerned with planning, organizing, managing, and implementing all activities required to determine, achieve and maintain a specified contamination level.
crankcase oilLubricant used in the crankcase of the internal combustion engine.
depth filterA filter medium that retains contaminants primarily within tortuous passages.
desorptionOpposite of absorption or adsorption. In filtration, it relates to the downstream release of particles previously retained by the filter.
dirt capacityThe weight of a specified artificial contaminant which must be added to the influent to produce a given differential pressure across a filter at specified conditions. Used as an indication of relative service life.
dropping pointIn general, the dropping point is the temperature at which the grease passes from a semisolid to a liquid state. This change in state is typical of greases containing conventional soap thickeners. Greases containing thickeners other than conventional soaps may, without change in state, separate oil.
fatigue chunksThick three-dimensional particles exceeding 50 microns indicating severe wear of gear teeth.
fatigue plateletsNormal particles between 20 and 40 microns found in gear box and rolling element bearing oil samples observed by analytical ferrography. A sudden increase in the size and quantity of these particles indicates excessive wear.
film strengthProperty of a lubricant that acts to prevent scuffing or scoring of metal parts.
filter housingA ported enclosure that directs the flow of fluid through the filter element.
filtration (beta) ratioThe ratio of the number of particles greater than a given size in the influent fluid to the number of particles greater than the same size in the effluent fluid.
fixed displacement pumpA pump in which the displacement per cycle cannot be varied.
floc pointThe temperature at which wax or solids separate in an oil
flow fatigue ratingThe ability of a filter element to resist a structural failure of the filter medium due to flexing caused by cyclic differential pressure.
fluid velocityThe measured speed at which a fluid moves through the inside of a tube.
flushingA fluid circulation process designed to remove contamination from the wetted surfaces of a fluid system.
foam inhibitorA substance introduced in a very small proportion to a lubricant or a coolant to prevent the formation of foam due to aeration of the liquid, and to accelerate the dissipation of any foam that may form
force feed lubricationA system of lubrication in which the lubricant is supplied to the bearing surface under pressure.
free airAir at ambient temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and density.
free waterWater droplets or globules in the system fluid that tend to accumulate at the bottom or top of the system fluid depending on the fluid’s specific gravity.
full-flow filtrationA system of filtration in which the total flow of a circulating fluid system passes through a filter.
fzg four square gear oil testUsed in developing industrial gear lubricants to meet equipment manufacturer`s specifications. The FZG test equipment consists of two gear sets, arranged in a four square configuration, driven by an electric motor. The test gear set is run in the lubricant at gradually increased load stages until failure, which is the point at which a 10 milligram weight loss by the gear set is recorded. Also called Niemann Four Square Gear Oil Test.
gallingA form of wear in which seizing or tearing of the gear or bearing surface occurs.
gas turbine1) An engine that uses the energy of expanding gases passing through a multi-stage turbine to create rotating power.
2) газовая турбина; газотурбинный двигатель; газотурбинный
gearbox (gear housing)A casing for gear sets that transmit power from one rotating shaft to another. A gear box has a number of functions: it is precisely bored to control gear and shaft alignment, it contains the gear oil, and it protects the gears and lubricant from water, dust, and other environmental contaminants. Gear boxes are used in a wide range of industrial, automotive, and home machinery. Not all gears are enclosed in gear boxes; some are open to the environment and are commonly lubricated by highly adhesive greases.
gravimetric analysisA method of analysis whereby the dry weight of contaminant per unit volume of fluid can be measured showing the degree of contamination in terms of milligrams of contaminant per litre of fluid.
grease fittingA small fitting which connects a grease gun and the component to be lubricated. The fitting is installed by a threaded connection, leaving a nipple to which the grease gun attaches.
helical gearA cylindrical gear wheel which has slanted teeth that follow the pitch surface in a helical manner.
hybrid bearingA bearing that consists of metal rings and ceramic balls.
hydraulic motorA device which converts hydraulic fluid power into mechanical force and motion by transfer of flow under pressure. It usually provided rotary mechanical motion.
hydrofinishingA process for treating raw extracted base stocks with hydrogen to saturate them for improved stability.
hydrophobicCompounds that repel water.
hypoid gear lubricantA gear lubricant having extreme pressure characteristics for use with a hypoid type of gear as in the differential of an automobile.
ilmaThe Independent Lubricant Manufacturers Association (ILMA) is a trade association of businesses engaged in compounding, blending, formulating, packaging, marketing, and distributing lubricants.
image analyzerA sophisticated microscopic system involving a microscope, a television camera, a dedicated computer, and a viewing monitor similar to a television screen.
infrared spectroscopyAn analytical method using infrared absorption for assessing the properties of used oil and certain contaminants suspended therein. See FTIR.
inhibitorAny substance that slows or prevents such chemical reactions as corrosion or oxidation.
intercooler1) A device which cools a gas between the compressive steps of a multiple stage compressor.
2) промежуточный теплообменник
interfacial tension (ift)The energy per unit area present at the boundary of two immiscible liquids. It is usually expressed in dynes/cm (ASTM Designation D 971.)
lip sealAn elastomeric or metallic seal that prevents leakage in dynamic and static applications by a scraping or wiping action at a controlled interference between itself and the mating surface.
magnetic sealA seal that uses magnetic material (instead of springs or a bellows) to provide the closing force that keeps the seal faces together.
magnetic separatorA separator that uses a magnetic field to attract and hold ferromagnetic particles.
media migrationMaterial passed into the effluent stream composed of the materials making up the filter medium.
microscope methodA method of particle counting which measures or sizes particles using an optical microscope.
mineral seal oilA distillation fraction between kerosene and gas oil, widely used as a solvent oil in gas adsorption processes, as a lubricant for the rolling of metal foil, and as a base oil in many specialty formulations. Mineral seal oil takes its name – not from any sealing function – but from the fact that it originally replaced oil derived from seal blubber for use as an illuminant for signal lamps and lighthouses.
normal paraffinA hydrocarbon consisting of molecules in which any carbon atom is attached to no more than two other carbon atoms; also called straight chain paraffin and linear paraffin.
oil drainA large bolt or plug that secures the drain hole in the oil pan. It is generally fitted with a gasket or O-ring to prevent leakage.
oil ringA loose ring, the inner surface of which rides a shaft or journal and dips into a reservoir of lubricant from which it carries the lubricant to the top of a bearing by its rotation with the shaft.
paper chromatographyA method which involves placing a drop of fluid on a permeable piece of paper and noting the development and nature of the halos, or rings, surrounding the drop through time. The roots of this test can be traced to the 1940s, when railroads used the "blotter spot" tests.
paraffinicA type of petroleum fluid derived from paraffinic crude oil and containing a high proportion of straight chain saturated hydrocarbons. Often susceptible to cold flow problems.
particulatesParticles made up of a wide range of natural materials (e.g., pollen, dust, resins), combined with man-made pollutant (e.g., smoke particles, metallic ash); in sufficient concentrations, particulates can be a respiratory irritant.
petrochemicalAny chemical substance derived from crude oil or its products, or from natural gas. Some petrochemical products may be identical to others produced from other raw materials such as coal and producer gas.
pitch lineAn imaginary line that divides the upper and lower halves of gear teeth while in the contact area.
plain bearingA relatively simple and inexpensive bearing typically made of two parts. A rotary plain bearing can be just a shaft running through a hole. A simple linear bearing can be a pair of flat surfaces designed to allow motion.
poise (absolute viscosity)A measure of viscosity numerically equal to the force required to move a plane surface of one square centimeter per second when the surfaces are separated by a layer of fluid one centimeter in thickness. It is the ratio of the shearing stress to the shear rate of a fluid and is expressed in dyne seconds per square centimeter (DYNE SEC/CM2); 1 centipoise equals .01 poise.
polymerizationThe chemical combination of similar-type molecules to form larger molecules.
reservoir filterA filter installed in a reservoir in series with a suction or return line. Also known as sump filter.
rheologyThe study of the deformation and flow of matter in terms of stress, strain, temperature, and time. The rheological properties of a grease are commonly measured by penetration and apparent viscosity.
ringsCircular metallic elements that ride in the grooves of a piston and provide compression sealing during combustion. Also used to spread oil for lubrication.
rolling element bearingA friction-reducing bearing that consists of a ring-shaped track that contains free-revolving metal balls. A rotating shaft or other part turns against such a bearing.
roll-off cleanlinessThe fluid system contamination level at the time of release from an assembly or overhaul line. Fluid system life can be shortened significantly by full-load operation under a high fluid contamination condition for just a few hours. Contaminant implanted and generated during the break-in period can devastate critical components unless removed under controlled operating and high performance filtering conditions.
sample preparationFluid factors that can enhance the accuracy of the particulate analysis. Such factors include particle dispersion, particle settling, and sample dilution.
saturation levelThe amount of water that can dissolve in a fluid.
seal chamberThe area between the seal chamber bore and a shaft in which a mechanical seal is installed.
seal faceIt is either of the two lapped surfaces in a mechanical seal assembly forming the primary seal.
seal face widthThe radial distance from the inside edge to the outside edge of the sealing face.
semisolidAny substance having the attributes of both a solid and a liquid. Similar to semiliquid but being more closely related to a solid than a liquid. More generally, any substance in which the force required to produce a deformation depends both on the magnitude and on the rate of the deformation.
sloughing offThe release of contaminant from the upstream side of a filter element to the upstream side of the filter enclosure.
static sealA seal between two surfaces which have no relative motion.
surface fatigue wearThe formation of surface or subsurface cracks and fatigue crack propagation. It results from cyclic loading of a surface.
sus (ssu)Saybolt Universal Seconds. A measure of lubricating oil viscosity in the oil industry. The measuring apparatus is filled with specific quantity of oil or other Fluid and its flow time through standatized offrice is measured in Seconds. Fast flowing fluids (low viscosity) will have low value; Slow flowing fluids (high viscosity) will have high value.
synthetic lubricantA lubricant produced by chemical synthesis rather than by extraction or refinement of petroleum to produce a compound with planned and predictable properties.
thrust bearingAn axial-load bearing.
unbalanced sealA mechanical seal arrangement wherein the full hydraulic pressure of the seal chamber acts to close the seal faces.
viscosity index (vi)A commonly used measure of a fluid`s change of viscosity with temperature. The higher the viscosity index, the smaller the relative change in viscosity with temperature.
wear inhibitorAn additive which protects the rubbing surfaces against wear, particularly from scuffing, if the hydrodynamic film is ruptured.