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Glossary of Statistical Terms

change of units or variables
    Also transformation
class interval
    In plotting a histogram, one starts by dividing the range of values into a set of non-overlapping intervals, called class intervals, in such a way that every datum is contained in some class inter... bin; класса интервал;
binomial coefficient
    The number of combinations of n things taken k at a time is the number of ways of picking a subset of k of the n things, without replacement, and without regard to the order in which the elements ... binomial coefficient;
mutually exclusive
    Disjoint events or disjoint sets
disjoint events or disjoint sets;
disjoint events or disjoint sets
    mutually exclusive;
    element of a set
    standard normal curve
      Normal curve
    normal curve;
    normal curve
      The normal curve is the familiar "bell curve:," illustrated on this page. the mathematical expression for the normal curve is y = (2×pi)−½e−x2/2, where pi is the ratio of the... standard normal curve;
    frequency theory of probability
      Probability, theories of
    probability, theories of;
    lower quartile (lq)
      There are three quartiles. the first or lower quartile (lq) of a list is a number (not necessarily a number in the list) such that at least 1/4 of the numbers in the list are no larger than it, an... lower quartile (lq); upper quartile (uq);
    upper quartile (uq)
    random event
      Random experiment
    random experiment;
    random experiment
      An experiment or trial whose outcome is not perfectly predictable, but for which the long-run relative frequency of outcomes of different types in repeated trials is predictable. note that "random... random event;
    sample survey
    1. A survey based on the responses of a sample of individuals, rather than the entire population.

    2. Выборочное обследование; выборочное наблюдение, см. sampling; sampling observation, sa... survey;
    affine transformation
    post hoc ergo propter hoc
      "after this, therefore because of this." a fallacy of logic known since classical times: inferring a causal relation from correlation. don`t do this at home!
    1. A "dummy" treatment that has no pharmacological effect; e.g., a sugar pill.

    2. Placebo

    3. A tablet which appears to be a drug, but has no medicinal substance in it comment: pla... placebo; плацебо;
    independent and identically distributed (iid)
      A collection of two or more random variables {x1, x2, … , } is independent and identically distributed if the variables have the same probability distribution, and are independent.
    cross-sectional study
      A cross-sectional study compares different individuals to each other at the same time—it looks at a cross-section of a population. the differences between those individuals can confound with the e...
    skewed distribution
      A distribution that is not symmetrical.
    multimodal distribution
      A distribution with more than one mode. the histogram of a multimodal distribution has more than one "bump."
    fair bet
      A fair bet is one for which the expected value of the payoff is zero, after accounting for the cost of the bet. for example, suppose i offer to pay you $2 if a fair coin lands heads, but you must ...
    game theory
      A field of study that bridges mathematics, statistics, economics, and psychology. it is used to study economic behavior, and to model conflict between nations, for example, "nuclear stalemate" dur... теория игр;
    secular trend
      A linear association (trend) with time.
    секулярный тренд;
    logical argument
      A logical argument consists of one or more premises, propositions that are assumed to be true, and a conclusion, a proposition that is supposed to be guaranteed to be true (as a matter of pure log...
    sound argument
      A logical argument is sound if it is logically valid and its premises are in fact true. an argument can be logically valid and yet not sound—if its premises are false.
    denying the antecedent
      A logical fallacy that argues from the premise a → b and the premise !a that therefore, !b. the name comes from the fact that the operation denies (i.e., asserts the negation of) the anteced...
    affirming the consequent
      A logical fallacy that argues from the premise a → b and the premise b that therefore, a is true. the name comes from the fact that the argument affirms (i.e., asserts as true) the consequen...
    appeal to ignorance
      A logical fallacy: taking the absence of evidence to be evidence of absence. if something is not known to be false, assume that it is true; or if something is not known to be true, assume that it ...
    compound proposition
      A logical proposition formed from other propositions using logical operations such as !, |, xor, &, → and ↔.
    venn diagram
      A pictorial way of showing the relations among sets or events. the universal set or outcome space is usually drawn as a rectangle; sets are regions within the rectangle. the overlap of the regions... диаграмма венна;
    class boundary
      A point that is the left endpoint of one class interval, and the right endpoint of another class interval.
    nearly normal distribution
      A population of numbers (a list of numbers) is said to have a nearly normal distribution if the histogram of its values in standard units nearly follows a normal curve. more precisely, suppose tha...
    probability histogram
      A probability histogram for a random variable is analogous to a histogram of data, but instead of plotting the area of the bins proportional to the relative frequency of observations in the class ...
    qualitative variable
      A qualitative variable is one whose values are adjectives, such as colors, genders, nationalities, etc. c.f. quantitative variable and categorical variable.
    continuous variable
      A quantitative variable is continuous if its set of possible values is uncountable. examples include temperature, exact height, exact age (including parts of a second). in practice, one can never ...
    discrete variable
      A quantitative variable whose set of possible values is countable. typical examples of discrete variables are variables whose possible values are a subset of the integers, such as social security ...
    quota sample
      A quota sample is a sample picked to match the population with respect to some summary characteristics. it is not a random sample. for example, in an opinion poll, one might select a sample so tha...