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Глоссарий по истории гражданской войны в США (английский)

54th massachusetts regiment
    One of the first african-american regiments organized to fight for the union in the civil war.
  1. The american expeditionary force, u.s. forces during world war i.

  2. Airborne equipment failure

  3. Aviation engineer force

  4. Alliance for environmental education; accu... airborne equipment failure; aviation engineer force; alliance for environmental education; accurate environmental forecasting, inc.;
african diaspora
    The forced removal of africans from their homelands to serve as slave labor in the americas.
albany plan of union
    The first formal proposal to unite the american colonies, put forth by benjamin franklin.
alien and sedition
    A series of four laws enacted in 1798 to reduce the political power of recent immigrants to the united states.
    An alliance of serbia, russia, france, great britain, italy, and seven other countries during world war i.
american federation of labor (afl)
    A national organization of labor unions founded in 1886.
american system
    A plan introduced in 1815 to make the united states economically self-sufficient.
    A strategy by which the union proposed to defeat the confederacy in the civil war.
    A group of well-known americans that believed the united states should not deny other people the right to govern themselves.
    A person who opposed the ratification of the u.s. constitution.
    Having power to review court decisions.
    The virginia town where robert e. lee surrendered to ulysses s. grant in 1865, ending the civil war.
    Public funds set aside for a specific purpose.
    A scientist who studies the human past by examining the things people left behind.
articles of confederation
    A document, adopted by the continental congress in 1777 and finally approved by the states in 1781, that outlined the form of government of the new united states.
baby boom
    The term for the generation born between 1946 and 1961, when the u.s. birthrate sharply increased following world war ii.
    A colonial region that ran along the appalachian mountains through the far western part of the new england, middle, and southern colonies.
bacon’s rebellion
    A revolt against powerful colonial authority in jamestown by nathaniel bacon and a group of landless frontier settlers that resulted in the burning of jamestown in 1676.
battle of antietam
    A civil war battle in 1862 in which 25,000 men were killed or wounded.
battle of the little bighorn
    An 1876 battle in which the sioux and the cheyenne wiped out an entire force of u.s. troops.
battle of the thames
    An american victory over the british in the war of 1812, which ended the british threat to the northwest territory.
battle of yorktown
    The last major battle of the revolutionary war, which resulted in the surrender of british forces in 1781.
battles of saratoga
    A series of conflicts between british soldiers and the continental army in 1777 that proved to be a turning point in the revolutionary war.
bear flag revolt
    The 1846 rebellion by americans against mexican rule in california.
bill of attainder
    A law that condemns a person without a trial in court.
bill of rights
    The first ten amendments to the u.s. constitution, added in 1791, and consisting of a formal list of citizens’ rights and freedoms.
black code
    Law passed by southern states that limited the freedom of former slaves.
    When armed forces prevent the transportation of goods or people into or out of an area.
    A town that has a sudden burst of economic or population growth.
border state
    A slave state that bordered states in which slavery was illegal.
  1. A clash between british soldiers and boston colonists in 1770, in which five of the colonists, including crispus attucks, were killed.

  2. Г. бостон (адм. центр шт. массачусетс, сша) бостон; бостона;
boston tea party
    The dumping of 342 chests of tea into boston harbor by colonists in 1773 to protest the tea act.
    A reward or cash payment given by a government. (pp. 271, 508)
boxer rebellion
    In 1900, chinese resentment toward foreigners’ attitude of cultural superiority resulted in this violent uprising.
    A refusal to buy certain goods.
buffalo soldier
    A name given by native americans to african americans serving in the u.s. army in the west.
    In 1849, large numbers of people moved to california because gold had been discovered there.
калифорнийский залив (тихий ок., между п-овом калифорния и побережьем мексики); калифорнийское течение (тихий ок.); шт. калифорния (сша); cal.; calif.; ca;
cash crop
    A crop grown by a farmer to be sold for money rather than for personal use.
товарная культура; товарная часть урожая; сельскохозяйственная;
    An exhibition in philadelphia in 1876 that celebrated america’s 100th birthday.
central powers
    An alliance of austria-hungary, germany, the ottoman empire, and bulgaria during world war i.
chinese exclusion act
    Enacted in 1882, this law banned chinese immigration for ten years.
civil disobedience
    Peacefully refusing to obey laws one considers unjust.
civil rights
    Rights granted to all citizens.
гражданские права;
    A form of culture characterized by city trade centers, specialized workers, organized forms of government and religion, systems of record keeping, and advanced tools.
    A large group of families that claim a common ancestor.
clayton antitrust act
    A law passed in 1914 that laid down rules forbidding business practices that lessened competition; it gave the government more power to regulate trusts.
cold war
    The state of hostility, without direct military conflict, that developed between the united states and the soviet union after world war ii.
    The transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the western and the eastern hemispheres.
committee of correspondence
    A group of people in the colonies who exchanged letters on colonial affairs.