Глоссарий

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England from the other shore






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Глоссарий по истории гражданской войны в США (английский)

three-fifths compromise
    The constitutional convention’s agreement to count three-fifths of a state’s slaves as population for purposes of representation and taxation.

battles of saratoga
    A series of conflicts between british soldiers and the continental army in 1777 that proved to be a turning point in the revolutionary war.

rendezvous
  1. A meeting.

  2. Встреча; сбор; мес- то сбора (самолетов)

hdvu;
declaration of independence
    The document, written in 1776, in which the colonies declared independence from britain.

second continental congress
    A governing body whose delegates agreed, in may 1775, to form the continental army and to approve the declaration of independence.

continental army
    A colonial force authorized by the second continental congress in 1775, with george washington as its commanding general.

lexington and concord
    Sites in massachusetts of the first battles of the american revolution.

first continental congress
    A meeting of delegates in 1774 from all the colonies except georgia to uphold colonial rights.

intolerable acts
    A series of laws enacted by parliament in 1774 to punish massachusetts colonists for the boston tea party.

minuteman
    A member of the colonial militia who was trained to respond “at a minute’s warning.”

boston tea party
    The dumping of 342 chests of tea into boston harbor by colonists in 1773 to protest the tea act.

privateer
  1. A privately owned ship that has government permission during wartime to attack an enemy’s merchant ships.

  2. A privately owned ship authorised by a national power (by means of a #lette...
guerrilla
    A soldier who weakens the enemy with surprise raids and hit-and-run attacks.

pacifist
    A person morally opposed to war.

virginia plan
    A plan proposed by edmund randolph, a delegate to the constitutional convention in 1787, that proposed a government with three branches and a two-house legislature in which representation would be...
new jersey plan
    A plan of government proposed at the constitutional convention in 1787 that called for a one-house legislature in which each state would have one vote.

constitutional convention
    A meeting held in 1787 to consider changes to the articles of confederation; resulted in the drafting of the constitution.

northwest territory
    Territory covered by the land ordinance of 1785, which included land that formed the states of ohio, indiana, michigan, illinois, wisconsin, and part of minnesota.

northwest ordinance
    It described how the northwest territory was to be governed and set conditions for settlement and settlers’ rights.

land ordinance of 1785
    A law that established a plan for surveying and selling the federally owned lands west of the appalachian mountains.

articles of confederation
    A document, adopted by the continental congress in 1777 and finally approved by the states in 1781, that outlined the form of government of the new united states.

wilderness road
    The trail into kentucky that woodsman daniel boone helped to build.

treaty of paris of 1783
    The treaty that ended the revolutionary war, confirming the independence of the united states and setting the boundaries of the new nation.

battle of yorktown
    The last major battle of the revolutionary war, which resulted in the surrender of british forces in 1781.

committee of correspondence
    A group of people in the colonies who exchanged letters on colonial affairs.

boycott
    A refusal to buy certain goods.

sons of liberty
    A group of colonists who formed a secret society to oppose british policies at the time of the american revolution.

indigo
    A plant grown in the southern colonies that yields a deep blue dye.

diversity
  1. A variety of people.

  2. The nonsimultaneous occurrence of maximum demands on any given part of a system. diversity factor 1. in an electric wiring system, the ratio of the sum of the i...
gristmill
  1. A mill in which grain is ground to produce flour or meal.

  2. A mill for grinding grain; in earlier times powered by the wind, a stream, river, or by tidal water.

cash crop
    A crop grown by a farmer to be sold for money rather than for personal use.

navigation acts
    A series of laws passed by parliament, beginning in 1651, to ensure that england made money from its colonies’ trade.

triangular trade
    The transatlantic system of trade in which goods, including slaves, were exchanged between africa, england, europe, the west indies, and the colonies in north america.

subsistence farm
    A farm that produces enough food for the family with a small additional amount for trade.

backcountry
    A colonial region that ran along the appalachian mountains through the far western part of the new england, middle, and southern colonies.

royal colony
    A colony ruled by governors appointed by a king.

patroon
    A person who brought 50 settlers to new netherland and in return received a large land grant and other special privileges.

fall line
    The point at which a waterfall prevents large boats from moving farther upriver.

clan
    A large group of families that claim a common ancestor.

great awakening
    A revival of religious feeling in the american colonies during the 1730s and 1740s.

quartering act
    A law passed by parliament in 1765 that required the colonies to house and supply british soldiers.

sugar act
    A law passed by parliament in 1764 that placed a tax on sugar, molasses, and other products shipped to the colonies; also called for harsh punishment of smugglers.

stamp act
    A 1765 law passed by parliament that required all legal and commercial documents to carry an official stamp showing a tax had been paid.

treaty of paris
    The 1763 treaty that ended the french and indian war; britain gave up all of north america east of the mississippi river.

albany plan of union
    The first formal proposal to unite the american colonies, put forth by benjamin franklin.

french and indian war
    A conflict in north america from 1754 to 1763 that was part of a worldwide struggle between france and britain; britain defeated france and gained french canada.

english bill of rights
    An agreement signed by william and mary to respect the rights of english citizens and of parliament, including the right to free elections.

magna carta
    “great charter;” a document guaranteeing basic political rights in england, approved by king john in 1215.

enlightenment
    An 18th-century movement that emphasized the use of reason and the scientific method to obtain knowledge.