Глоссарий

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Глоссарий по современной истории (английский)

anarchism
    An ideology that argues a society can be run without rules or a government and that the abolition of these things will lead to freedom, equality and justice
anti-ecumenism
    Opposed to the doctrines and practice of the ecumenical movement and hence to the unity of the christian churches
anti-semitism
    Hostility or hatred towards peoples of semitic origins but is used to mean anti-jewish
apartheid
    A policy of racial segregation, exploitation and oppression developed by white minority south african governments
appeasement
    Policy attributed to european governments in the 1930s that met the expansionist policies of nazi germany by offering concessions
autocracy
    Absolute rule or government by one person
bolshevism
    An ideology advocating the seizure of power by a revolutionary elite in the name of the proletariat
case studies
    Case studies are inquiry-based investigations into key features, issues, individuals, groups, events or concepts in modern history. they are oriented towards the problems and issues of investigati...
collectivisation
    The socialist policy of joining together small farms and other enterprises under group or state ownership
communalism
    A theory that a nation should be organised around different regional communities and that a nation is merely a federation of such states. in india these communities are mostly religious.
consumerism
    An aspect of capitalism that encourages the consumption of goods and services
containment
  1. Specific us cold war foreign policy aimed at limiting the spread of communism

  2. The blocking by one nation of another nation’s attempts to spread influence—especially the efforts of t... сдерживание;
decolonisation
    The process of colonies being freed from imperial rule through their own initiatives or the granting of self-government
detente
    Easing the strained relations between the super powers during the cold war
feminism
    A doctrine or movement advocating equal rights for women in social and political life
government intervention
    Where a government involves itself directly and actively in the regulation of economic and business activities
guomindang
    Nationalist political party in china that became the government from 1927 to 1949
historiography
    The study of how history is constructed. it involves the critical analysis and evaluation of the reliability of evidence, as well as the way history has been written in the past
imperialism
  1. Where one country possesses, governs or controls other countries beyond its own borders

  2. The policy by which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control ov...
industrialisation
    The process of moving towards large-scale mechanised industry, usually accompanied by urbanisation, rather than agriculture, crafts and trading
internationalism
  1. The promotion of the belief in global cooperation rather than national rivalry

  2. N интер- национализм, интернациональное слово
interpretation
  1. A way of understanding and explaining what has happened in the past. the discipline of history acknowledges that there is often more than one view of what has happened in the past

  2. И... интерпретация;
intifada
    An uprising conducted by the palestinian people in the occupied territories against the state of israel
isolationism
    A view in american foreign policy that argues that the best interests of the united states lay in avoiding international entanglements
konfrontasi
    Foreign policy conducted by the indonesian government during the 1960s towards malaysia and singapore
liberal democracy
    A form of democracy where majority rule is underpinned by liberal rights such as freedom of speech, assembly and religious beliefs, and the right to private property, privacy and due legal process...
liberalism
    Commitment to individual freedoms such as freedom of trade, speech, press, association and religion
maoism
    An ideology expounded by mao zedong in china that emphasised the revolutionary role of the peasants in achieving communism
marxism
    A political and economic theory developed by karl marx and frederick engles that called for the abolition of private property and emphasised the role of the state in providing work and benefits fo...
militarism
  1. The belief that strong armed forces, discipline and obedience will solve political and social problems

  2. The belief that a nation needs a large military force.
modernisation
    The process of becoming modern, accepting change and modern values
multiculturalism
    A policy of valuing and maintaining the distinctive identities of all cultural groups within a society
national sovereignty
    Supreme and independent power or authority that is claimed by a state or cultural or ethnic group
nationalism
  1. The promotion of the interests of one`s own nation above all others

  2. A feeling of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness toward one’s country.
new order
    Term used to describe the policies of the suharto government in promoting the values of national unity, modernisation and capitalism in indonesia
pan-nationalism
    Nationalism that crosses national borders
pancasila
    The five values that formed the basis of the indonesian state after independence: faith in one god, humanism, nationalism, representative government and social justice
proletariat
    The working or unpropertied class who rely on the sale of their labour for an income
racism
  1. The belief in the superiority of one race of people over others

  2. The belief that some people are inferior because of their race.
regionalism
    Movement that developed in indonesia`s provinces emphasising the need for each region to maintain its own identity and independence
satyagraha
    `truth force` or `holding on to the truth` - a non-violent method of resistance developed in india by mahatma gandhi to ensure political or social change
sectarianism
    The reinforcement of divisions between religious groups
socialism
  1. A system where wealth, land and property are owned and controlled by the community as a whole rather than being privately owned

  2. An economic system in which all members of a society ...
stalinism
    A system of government originating in the soviet union under joseph stalin
terrorism
    The use and threat of violence for political purposes
terrorismo;
third world
    Term used during the cold war that referred to developing nations that did not identify themselves with either the usa or soviet blocs
totalitarianism
    System of government where the state seeks to gain complete control over its citizens and does not recognise or tolerate parties of differing opinion
urbanisation
    A process, usually accompanied by industrialisation, where people move from traditional life in the countryside to towns and cities
warlordism
    A system where power is controlled by regional military leaders and the central government has broken down, especially in china 1916-1928
zaibatsu
    Huge economic and industrial organisations formed by a few japanese families after the meiji restoration