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England from the other shore

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Глоссарий по современной истории (английский)

imperialism1) where one country possesses, governs or controls other countries beyond its own borders
2) the policy by which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker nations or territories.
militarism1) the belief that strong armed forces, discipline and obedience will solve political and social problems
2) the belief that a nation needs a large military force.
racism1) the belief in the superiority of one race of people over others
2) the belief that some people are inferior because of their race.
new orderterm used to describe the policies of the Suharto government in promoting the values of national unity, modernisation and capitalism in Indonesia
third worldterm used during the Cold War that referred to developing nations that did not identify themselves with either the USA or Soviet blocs
totalitarianismsystem of government where the state seeks to gain complete control over its citizens and does not recognise or tolerate parties of differing opinion
national sovereigntysupreme and independent power or authority that is claimed by a state or cultural or ethnic group
containment1) specific US Cold War foreign policy aimed at limiting the spread of communism
2) the blocking by one nation of another nation’s attempts to spread influence—especially the efforts of the United States to block the spread of Soviet Communism during the late 1940s and early 1950s.
3) 1. action taken to restrict the spread of something undesirable or dangerous such as a disease  government policy of containment of the sars virus 2. the eradication of a global disease such as smallpox by removing it region by region
appeasementpolicy attributed to European governments in the 1930s that met the expansionist policies of Nazi Germany by offering concessions
anti-ecumenismopposed to the doctrines and practice of the ecumenical movement and hence to the unity of the Christian churches
guomindangnationalist political party in China that became the government from 1927 to 1949
pancasilathe five values that formed the basis of the Indonesian state after independence: faith in one god, humanism, nationalism, representative government and social justice
modernisationthe process of becoming modern, accepting change and modern values
decolonisationthe process of colonies being freed from imperial rule through their own initiatives or the granting of self-government
government interventionwhere a government involves itself directly and actively in the regulation of economic and business activities
satyagraha`truth force` or `holding on to the truth` - a non-violent method of resistance developed in India by Mahatma Gandhi to ensure political or social change
proletariatthe working or unpropertied class who rely on the sale of their labour for an income
terrorismthe use and threat of violence for political purposes
historiographythe study of how history is constructed. It involves the critical analysis and evaluation of the reliability of evidence, as well as the way history has been written in the past
collectivisationthe socialist policy of joining together small farms and other enterprises under group or state ownership
sectarianismthe reinforcement of divisions between religious groups
nationalism1) the promotion of the interests of one`s own nation above all others
2) a feeling of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness toward one’s country.
internationalismthe promotion of the belief in global cooperation rather than national rivalry
industrialisationthe process of moving towards large-scale mechanised industry, usually accompanied by urbanisation, rather than agriculture, crafts and trading
pan-nationalismnationalism that crosses national borders
regionalismmovement that developed in Indonesia`s provinces emphasising the need for each region to maintain its own identity and independence
zaibatsuhuge economic and industrial organisations formed by a few Japanese families after the Meiji Restoration
communalisma theory that a nation should be organised around different regional communities and that a nation is merely a federation of such states. In India these communities are mostly religious.
socialism1) a system where wealth, land and property are owned and controlled by the community as a whole rather than being privately owned
2) an economic system in which all members of a society are equal owners of all businesses; members share the work and the profits.
warlordisma system where power is controlled by regional military leaders and the central government has broken down, especially in China 1916-1928
stalinisma system of government originating in the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin
urbanisationa process, usually accompanied by industrialisation, where people move from traditional life in the countryside to towns and cities
marxisma political and economic theory developed by Karl Marx and Frederick Engles that called for the abolition of private property and emphasised the role of the state in providing work and benefits for all leading eventually to a socialist order and a classle
multiculturalisma policy of valuing and maintaining the distinctive identities of all cultural groups within a society
apartheida policy of racial segregation, exploitation and oppression developed by white minority South African governments
zionisma movement formerly for re-establishing, now for advancing, the Jewish national state of Israel
liberal democracya form of democracy where majority rule is underpinned by liberal rights such as freedom of speech, assembly and religious beliefs, and the right to private property, privacy and due legal process
isolationisma view in American foreign policy that argues that the best interests of the United States lay in avoiding international entanglements
interpretationa way of understanding and explaining what has happened in the past. The discipline of history acknowledges that there is often more than one view of what has happened in the past
autocracyabsolute rule or government by one person
anti-semitismhostility or hatred towards peoples of Semitic origins but is used to mean anti-Jewish
konfrontasiforeign policy conducted by the Indonesian government during the 1960s towards Malaysia and Singapore
detenteeasing the strained relations between the super powers during the Cold War
liberalismcommitment to individual freedoms such as freedom of trade, speech, press, association and religion
case studiescase studies are inquiry-based investigations into key features, issues, individuals, groups, events or concepts in modern history. They are oriented towards the problems and issues of investigating the past. Case studies in the Preliminary course are int
intifadaan uprising conducted by the Palestinian people in the Occupied Territories against the state of Israel
anarchisman ideology that argues a society can be run without rules or a government and that the abolition of these things will lead to freedom, equality and justice
maoisman ideology expounded by Mao Zedong in China that emphasised the revolutionary role of the peasants in achieving communism
bolshevisman ideology advocating the seizure of power by a revolutionary elite in the name of the proletariat
consumerisman aspect of capitalism that encourages the consumption of goods and services
feminisma doctrine or movement advocating equal rights for women in social and political life