Глоссарий

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England from the other shore






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Стилистический глоссарий

features of newspaper style- alleges and claims, restrictions of time and space - special political and economic terms, non-term political vocabulary, newspaper cliches, abbreviations, neologisms; - syntactic constructions, indicating a lack of ass
loose structure- opens with the main clause, which is followed by dependent units; - less emphatic and is highly characteristic of informal writing and conversation;
high-flown words- serve to satisfy communicative demands of official, scientific, high poetry and poetic messages, authorial speech of creative prose; - mainly observed in the written form; - contribute to the message the tone of solemnity, sophist
literary words- serve to satisfy communicative demands of official, scientific, high poetry and poetic messages, authorial speech of creative prose; - mainly observed in the written form; - contribute to the message the tone of solemnity, sophistic
bookish words- serve to satisfy communicative demands of official, scientific, high poetry and poetic messages, authorial speech of creative prose; - mainly observed in the written form; - contribute to the message the tone of solemnity, sophistica
learned words- serve to satisfy communicative demands of official, scientific, high poetry and poetic messages, authorial speech of creative prose; - mainly observed in the written form; - contribute to the message the tone of solemnity, sophistica
features of official style- special system of cliches, terms and set expressions; conventionality of expression; - each of subdivisions of this style has its own peculiar terms, phrases and expressions; - the encoded character of language; symbols:
balanced sentences- subordinate-main-subordinate similar structuring of the beginning of the sentence and its end; - known for stressing the logic and reasoning of the content and thus preferred in publicist writing;
indirect onomatopoeiaa combination of sounds the aim of which is to make the sound of the utterance an echo of its sense ("echo - writing") (I.R.G.) "And the silken, sad, uncertain, rustling of each purple curtain"(E.A.Poe) - is very effectively us
prolonged metaphora group (cluster) of metaphor s, each supplying another feature of the described phenomenon to present an elaborated image (V.A.K.)
sustained metaphora group (cluster) of metaphor s, each supplying another feature of the described phenomenon to present an elaborated image (V.A.K.)
cluster sdsa small group (cluster) of SDs, which - operate on the same linguistic mechanism: namely, one word-form is deliberately used in two meanings; - have humorous effect, and - include: pun or paronomasia , zeugma , violation of phraseologica
detached constructiona stylistic device based on singling out a secondary member of the sentence with the help of punctuation (intonation) (V.A.K.) I have to beg you nearly killed, ingloriously, in a jeep accident. (I.Shaw) I have to beg you for mo
logical climaxa three-step climax (the most widely spread model), in which intensification of logical importance, of emotion or quantity (size, dimensions) is gradually rising step by step (V.A.K.) •• is based on the relative importance of the comp
individual stylea unique combination of language units, expressive means and stylistic device s peculiar to a given writer, which makes that writer`s works or even utterances easily recognisable (I.R.G.) See: stylistic norm , Stylistics
semantically false chainsa variation of zeugma when the number of homogeneous members, semantically disconnected, but attached to the same verb, increases (V.A.K.) A Governess wanted. Must possess knowledge of Romanian, Russian, Italian, Spanish, G
gap-sentence linka way of connecting two sentences seemingly unconnected and leaving it to the reader`s perspicacity to grasp the idea implied, but not worded She and that fellow ought to be the sufferers, and they were in Italy. (J.Galsworthy) (th
quantitative climaxan evident increase in the volume of the corresponding concepts (I.R.G.) They looked at hundreds of houses; they climbed thousands of stairs; they inspected innumerable kitchens. (S.Maugham) Little by little, bit by bit, and day
lexico-syntactical stylistic devicescertain structures, whose emphasis depends not only on the arrangement of sentence members but also on the lexico-semantic aspect of the utterance (V.A.K.) - include: antithesis , climax , anticlimax , simile , l
lexico-syntactical sdscertain structures, whose emphasis depends not only on the arrangement of sentence members but also on the lexico-semantic aspect of the utterance (V.A.K.) - include: antithesis , climax , anticlimax , simile , litotes , perip
apokoinuconstructions the omission of the pronominal (adverbial) connective - create a blend of the main and the subordinate clauses so that - the predicative or the object of the first one is simultaneously used as the subject of the second one (V
epic simileextended simile , sustained expression of likeness See: simile
homeric simileextended simile , sustained expression of likeness See: simile
occasional wordsextension of the normative valency which results in the formation of new words. An effective way of using a morpheme for the creation of additional information. They are not neologisms in the true sense for they are created for spec
nonce-wordsextension of the normative valency which results in the formation of new words. An effective way of using a morpheme for the creation of additional information. They are not neologisms in the true sense for they are created for special c
full rhymeidentity of the vowel sound and the following consonant sounds in a stressed syllable (might - right, needless - heedless)
syntactical levelinclude syntactical stylistic devices , repetition , sentence structure , types of connection , arrangement of sentence members, completeness of sentence structure The most conspicuous places in the sentence are considered to be th
lexical stylistic devicesinclude: metaphor , personification ; metonymy , synecdoche ; cluster SDs ; play on words, irony , epithet , hyperbole , understatement , oxymoron See: set expressions , cluster SDs , syntactical SDs , lexico-syntactical SD
syntactical stylistic devicesinclude: sentence length, one-word sentences , punctuation , rhetorical question , parallel construction , chiasmus , inversion , suspense , detachment , ellipsis , one-member sentences, apokoinu constructions , break-i
syntactical sdsinclude: sentence length, one-word sentences , punctuation , rhetorical question , parallel construction , chiasmus , inversion , suspense , detachment , ellipsis , one-member sentences, apokoinu constructions , break-in-the-narrativ
lexical levelincludes: literary words , neutral words , colloquial words See: trope ; phono-graphical level , syntactical level ; Stylistics
stratum of wordsincludes: literary words , neutral words , colloquial words See: trope ; phono-graphical level , syntactical level ; Stylistics
word-stockincludes: literary words , neutral words , colloquial words See: trope ; phono-graphical level , syntactical level ; Stylistics
nonsense of non-sequencejoining two semantically disconnected clauses into one sentence (A.V.K.) Emperor Nero played the fiddle, so they burnt Rome. (Y.Esar) See: cluster SDs
grammaticalmetaphor
one-word sentencespossess a very strong emphatic impact, for their only word obtains both the word- and the sentence-stress. The word constituting a sentence also obtains its own sentence-intonation which, too, helps to foreground the content. (V.A
jargonisms1) proper such jargonisms which - served to conceal the actual significance of the utterance from the uninitiated; - originated from the thieves` jargon (l`argo, cant); - was to be cryptic, secretive (major function); See: slang , vulgarisms
2) such special colloquial words which - stand close to slang , also being substandard, expressive and emotive, but, unlike slang - are used by limited groups of people, united either professionally ( professional jargonisms or professionali
morphemic repetitionrepetition of a morpheme, both root and affixational, to emphasise and promote it (V.A.K.) They unchained, unbolted and unlocked the door. (A.Bennett) Laughing, crying, cheering, chaffing, singing, David Rossi`s people brought h
violation of phraseological unitsrestoring the literal original meaning of the word, which lost some of its semantic independence and strength in a phraseological unit or cliche. (A.V.K.) Little John was born with a silver spoon in his mouth which
affective epithetserves to convey the emotional evaluation of the object by the speaker (V.A.K.) "gorgeous", "nasty", "magnificent", "atrocious" See: figurative epithet or transferred epithet , epithet , lexical SDs
consonant rhymesshow concordance in consonants and disparity in vowels (worth - forth, tale - tool - Treble - trouble; flung - long)
half-registeredstructure полуотмеченная структура структура с нарушением лексической (once bellow a time) или грамматической (chips of when) сочетаемости (Н.Хомский) Colorless green ideas sleep furiously (Н.Хомский) a grief ago, a farmyard away, al
special literary wordssuch literary words as terms and archaisms (V.A.K.)
special slangsuch special colloquial words which - stand close to slang , also being substandard, expressive and emotive, but, unlike slang - are used by limited groups of people, united either professionally ( professional jargonisms or profession
neutral wordsthe overwhelming majority of lexis (V.A.K.) See: literary words , colloquial words
autologyавтология особый стилистический приём (минус-приём) преднамеренной простоты описания посредством слов, употреблённых только в прямых значениях (I.V.A.)
морфологические особенности научного стиля -авторская речь построена в первом лице множ. ч. "мы": 1) наука создана содружеством большого кол-ва учёных, 2) вовлечение читателей в процесс рассуждения и доказательства; we are coming to realise, we hav
alliterationаллитерация the repetition of consonants, usually in the beginning of words ... silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain (E.A.Poe) The furrow followed free. (S.T.Coleridge) The Italian trio tut-tuted their tongues at me. (T.
catch repetitionанадиплозис, подхват, эпаналепсис, стык a, a the end of one clause (sentence) is repeated in the beginning of the following one The stylistic function is to elucidate the notion, to concretise and to specify its semantic
reduplicationанадиплозис, подхват, эпаналепсис, стык a, a the end of one clause (sentence) is repeated in the beginning of the following one The stylistic function is to elucidate the notion, to concretise and to specify its semantics o
epanalepsisанадиплозис, подхват, эпаналепсис, стык a, a the end of one clause (sentence) is repeated in the beginning of the following one The stylistic function is to elucidate the notion, to concretise and to specify its semantics on
anticlimaxантиклимакс, спад a climax suddenly interrupted by an unexpected turn of the thought which defeats expectations of the reader (listener) and ends in complete semantic reversal of the emphasised idea (V.A.K.) It was appalling - and soon fo
antithesisантитеза a semantically complicated parallel construction , the two parts of which are semantically opposite to each other - is to stress the heterogenity of the described phenomenon, to show that the latter is a dialectical unity of two
antonomasiaантономасИя type 1: a lexical SD in which a proper name is used instead of a common noun, i.e. a lexical SD in which the nominal meaning of a proper name is suppressed by its logical meaning or the logical meaning acquires the new - nomi
break-in-the-narrativeапОзиопезис "a stopping short for rhetorical effect" (I.R.G.) - used mainly in the dialogue or in the other forms of narrative imitating spontaneous oral speech because the speaker`s emotions prevent him from finishing the sen
assonanceассонанс или вокалическая аллитерация the repetition of similar vowels, usually in stressed syllables (V.A.K.) Nor soul helps flesh now//more than flesh helps soul (R.Browning) Dreadful young creatures - squealing and squawking. (D.Carter)
vulgarismsвульгаризмы coarse special colloquial words with a strong emotive meaning, mostly derogatory, normally avoided in polite conversation (V.A.K.) There is so much bad shit between the two gangs that I bet there will be more killings this yea
expressive meansвыразительные средства are those phonetic, morphological, word-building, lexical, phraseological and syntactical forms which exist in language-as-a-system for the purpose of logical and/or emotional intensification of the utterance
newspaper styleгазетный стиль 1) observed in the majority of information materials printed in newspapers (V.A.K.) •• 2) a system of interrelated lexical, phraseological and grammatical means which is perceived by the community speaking the language
hyperboleгипербола a stylistic device in which emphasis is achieved through deliberate exaggeration It does not signify the actual state of affairs in reality, but presents the latter through the emotionally coloured perception and rendering of the
graphonграффон 1) intentional violation of the graphical shape of a word (or word combination) used to reflect its authentic pronunciation, to recreate the individual and social peculiarities of the speaker, the atmosphere of the communication act
direct onomatopoeiaзвукоподражание the use of words whose sounds imitate those of the signified object of action (V.A.K.) •• a combination of speech-sounds which aims at imitating sounds produced in nature (wind, sea, thunder, etc.), by things (mac
zeugmaзевгма a cluster SD, when a polysemantic verb that can be combined with nouns of most varying semantic groups is deliberately used with two of more homogeneous members, which are not connected semantically Source: V.A.K. He took his hat and h
zoonymic metaphorзоонимическая метафора, зооморфизм применение к людям слов второго разряда, т.е. названий животных, птиц и фантастических существ (метафорическое, эмоционально окрашенное и нередко обидное) (I.V.A.) ass, bear, beast, bitch, bookwor
zoomorphismзоонимическая метафора, зооморфизм применение к людям слов второго разряда, т.е. названий животных, птиц и фантастических существ (метафорическое, эмоционально окрашенное и нередко обидное) (I.V.A.) ass, bear, beast, bitch, bookworm, don
stylistic inversionинверсия a syntactical stylistic device in which the direct word order is changed either completely so that the predicate precedes the subject (complete inversion), or partially so that the object precedes the subject-predicate p
inverted epithetsинвертированные эпитеты based on the contradiction between the logical and the syntactical: logically defining becomes syntactically defined and vice versa. The article with the second noun will help in doubtful cases "this devil o
reversed epithetsинвертированные эпитеты based on the contradiction between the logical and the syntactical: logically defining becomes syntactically defined and vice versa. The article with the second noun will help in doubtful cases "this devil o
litotesлитота a two-component structure in which two negations are joined to give a possessive evaluation - the first component is always the negative particle "not", while the second, always negative in semantics, varies in form from a negatively
polysyndetonмногосоюзие, полисиндетон repeated use of conjunctions - is to strengthen the idea of equal logical/emotive importance of connected sentences By the time he had got all the bottles and dishes and knives and forks and glasses and plates
personificationолицетворение или персонификация a metaphor that involves likeness between inanimate and animate objects (V.A.K.) "the face of London", "the pain of ocean" Geneva, mother of the Red Cross, hostess of humanitarian congresses for the c
official styleофициально-деловой стиль represented in all kinds of official documents and papers (V.A.K.) •• The main aim is to state the conditions binding two parties in an undertaking (the state and the citizen, citizen and citizen, the society
officialeseофициально-деловой стиль represented in all kinds of official documents and papers (V.A.K.) •• The main aim is to state the conditions binding two parties in an undertaking (the state and the citizen, citizen and citizen, the society and
paronomasiaпарономасия, игра слов simultaneous realisation of two meanings through a) misinterpretation of one speaker`s utterance by the other, which results in his remark dealing with a different meaning of the misinterpreted word or its homonym
punпарономасия, игра слов simultaneous realisation of two meanings through a) misinterpretation of one speaker`s utterance by the other, which results in his remark dealing with a different meaning of the misinterpreted word or its homonym "Have yo
enumeration1) перечисление a SD by which separate things, objects, phenomena, properties, actions are named one by one so that they produce a chain, the links of which, being syntactically in the same position (homogeneous parts of speech), are forced
2) an official count, such as a census.
3) перепись; перечень; перечисление; регистрация
periphrasisперифраз a) using a roundabout form of expression instead of a simpler one b) using a more or less complicated syntactical structure instead of a word They are classified into figurative periphrasis ( metaphoric periphrasis or metonymic
logical periphrasisперифраз логический (эвфемистический) a phrase synonymic with the words which were substituted by periphrasis because the direct nomination of the not too elegant feature of appearance was substituted by a roundabout description
euphemismперифраз логический (эвфемистический) a phrase synonymic with the words which were substituted by periphrasis because the direct nomination of the not too elegant feature of appearance was substituted by a roundabout description - offers m
metonymic periphrasisперифраз фигуральный (метафорический, метонимический) a periphrasis that is made of phrase-metonymies or phrase-metaphors (V.A.K.) - is to convey a purely individual perception of the described object The hospital was crowded w
practical stylisticпрактическая стилистика the stylistics, proceeding form the norms of language usage at a given period and teaching these norms to language speakers, especially the ones, dealing with the language professionally (editors, publishe
rhetorical questionриторический вопрос peculiar interrogative construction which semantically remains a statement; - does not demand any information but - serves to express the emotions of the speaker and also - serves to call the attention of list
rhymeрифма the repetition of identical or similar terminal sound combination of words (I.R.G.) - full rhyme - incomplete rhymes: - vowel rhymes - consonant rhymes Source: I.R.G.
syllepsysсиллепсис объединение двух или более однородных членов, так или иначе различающихся в грамматическом отношении (I.V.A.)
synecdocheсинекдоха a metonymy based on the relations between the part and the whole (V.A.K.) He made his way through perfume and conversation. (I.Shaw) His mind was alert and people asked him to dinner not for old times` sake, but because he was w
synonymical repetitionсинонимический повтор the repetition of the same idea by using synonymous words and phrases which by adding a slightly different nuance of meaning intensify the impact of the utterance (I.R.G.) ... are there not capital punish
simileсравнение an imaginative comparison of two unlike objects belonging to two different classes on the grounds of similarity of some quality The one which is compared is called the tenor, the one with which it is compared, is called the vehicle.
style of languageстилистика is a system of co-ordinated, interrelated and inter-conditioned language means intended to fulfil a specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect (I.R.G.) наука о подсистемах литературного языка (сти
stylisticsстилистика is a system of co-ordinated, interrelated and inter-conditioned language means intended to fulfil a specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect (I.R.G.) наука о подсистемах литературного языка (стилях язы
stylistic normстилистическая норма the invariant of the phonemic, morphological. lexical and syntactical patterns circulating in language-in-action at a given period of time (I.R.G.) See: individual style , Stylistics
stylistic deviceстилистический приём is a conscious and intentional intensification of some typical structural and/or semantic property of a language unit (neutral or expressive) promoted to a generalised status and thus becoming a generative model
style of imaginative literatureстиль художественной литературы embracing numerous and versatile genres of imaginative writing (V.A.K.) •• The purpose (the cognitive function) is not to prove but only to suggest a possible *interpretation of the phe
sentence structureструктура предложения Not only the clarity and understandability of the sentence but also its expressiveness depend on the position of clauses, constituting it. - loose structure - periodic sentences - balanced sentences See: punc
phrase-epithetsфразовые эпитеты, голофрAзисы окказиональное функционирование словосочетания или предложения как цельнооформленного образования, графически, интонационно и синтаксически уподобленного слову (I.V.A.) I-am-not-that-kind-of girl look; S
functional styleфункциональный стиль, стиль речи a) a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim of communication b) includes: official style , scientific style , publicist style , newspaper style , belles-lettres style c) th
reversed parallel constructionхиазм a) reversed parallelism of the structure of several sentences (clauses) b) inversion of the first construction in the second part (V.A.K.) If the first sentence (clause) has a direct word order - SPO, the second
chains of epithetsцепочки эпитетов present a group of homogeneous attributes varying in number from three up to sometimes twenty and even more You`re a scolding, unjust, abusive, aggravating, bad old creature. (Ch.Dickens) He`s a proud, haughty, co
euphonyэвфония a sense of ease and comfort in pronouncing or hearing (V.A.K.) ... silken sad uncertain//rustling of each purple curtain ... (E.A.Poe) See: alliteration , assonance
elativeэлятив безотносительно большая степень признака (I.V.A.) a most valuable idea, the sweetest baby, the newest fashion of all, a most foolish wife; the orangemostest drink in the world(I.V.A.) You cannot be deader then the dead. (E.Hemingway)
epigramэпиграмма a) a SD akin to a proverb, the only difference being that epigrams are coined by individuals whose names we know, while proverbs are the coinage of the people b) terse, witty, pointed statement, showing the ingenious turn of mind o
epithetэпитет foregrounding the emotive meaning of the word to suppress its denotational meaning - is the most widely used lexical SD; - expresses characteristics of an object, both existing and imaginary; - semantically there should be differentia