Глоссарий

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Стилистический глоссарий

affective epithet
    Serves to convey the emotional evaluation of the object by the speaker (v.a.k.) "gorgeous", "nasty", "magnificent", "atrocious" see: figurative epithet or transferred epithet , epithet , lexical s...
alliteration
    Аллитерация the repetition of consonants, usually in the beginning of words ... silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain (e.a.poe) the furrow followed free. (s.t.coleridge) the italian...
anadiplosis
    Анадиплозис, подхват, эпаналепсис, стык a, a the end of one clause (sentence) is repeated in the beginning of the following one the stylistic function is to elucidate the notion, to concretise and...
anticlimax
    Антиклимакс, спад a climax suddenly interrupted by an unexpected turn of the thought which defeats expectations of the reader (listener) and ends in complete semantic reversal of the emphasised id...
antithesis
    Антитеза a semantically complicated parallel construction , the two parts of which are semantically opposite to each other - is to stress the heterogenity of the described phenomenon, to show that...
antonomasia
    Антономасия type 1: a lexical sd in which a proper name is used instead of a common noun, i.e. a lexical sd in which the nominal meaning of a proper name is suppressed by its logical meaning or th...
apokoinu
    Constructions the omission of the pronominal (adverbial) connective - create a blend of the main and the subordinate clauses so that - the predicative or the object of the first one is simultaneou...
aposiopesis
    Апозиопезис "a stopping short for rhetorical effect" (i.r.g.) - used mainly in the dialogue or in the other forms of narrative imitating spontaneous oral speech because the speaker`s emotions prev...
archaisms
    Архаизмы such special literary words as a) historical words - denoting historical phenomena which are no more in use "yeoman", "vassal", "falconet" b) poetic words and highly literary words - used...
assonance
    Ассонанс или вокалическая аллитерация the repetition of similar vowels, usually in stressed syllables (v.a.k.) nor soul helps flesh now//more than flesh helps soul (r.browning) dreadful young crea...
asyndeton
    Асиндетон deliberate omission of conjunctions, cutting off connecting words - helps to create the effect of terse, energetic, active prose. (v.a.k.) with these hurried words mr. bob sawyer pushed ...
autology
    Автология особый стилистический приём (минус-приём) преднамеренной простоты описания посредством слов, употреблённых только в прямых значениях (i.v.a.)
balanced sentences
    - subordinate-main-subordinate similar structuring of the beginning of the sentence and its end; - known for stressing the logic and reasoning of the content and thus preferred in publicist writin...
belles-lettres style
    Стиль художественной литературы embracing numerous and versatile genres of imaginative writing (v.a.k.) •• the purpose (the cognitive function) is not to prove but only to suggest a possible *inte...
bookish words
    - serve to satisfy communicative demands of official, scientific, high poetry and poetic messages, authorial speech of creative prose; - mainly observed in the written form; - contribute to the me...
break-in-the-narrative
    Апозиопезис "a stopping short for rhetorical effect" (i.r.g.) - used mainly in the dialogue or in the other forms of narrative imitating spontaneous oral speech because the speaker`s emotions prev...
cacophony
    A sense of strain and discomfort in pronouncing or hearing (v.a.k.) nor soul helps flesh now//more than flesh helps soul. (r.browning) see: alliteration , assonance
catch repetition
    Анадиплозис, подхват, эпаналепсис, стык a, a the end of one clause (sentence) is repeated in the beginning of the following one the stylistic function is to elucidate the notion, to concretise and...
chains of epithets
    Цепочки эпитетов present a group of homogeneous attributes varying in number from three up to sometimes twenty and even more you`re a scolding, unjust, abusive, aggravating, bad old creature. (ch....
chiasmus
    Хиазм a) reversed parallelism of the structure of several sentences (clauses) b) inversion of the first construction in the second part (v.a.k.) if the first sentence (clause) has a direct word or...
circumlocution
    Перифраз a) using a roundabout form of expression instead of a simpler one b) using a more or less complicated syntactical structure instead of a word they are classified into figurative periphras...
cluster sds
    A small group (cluster) of sds, which - operate on the same linguistic mechanism: namely, one word-form is deliberately used in two meanings; - have humorous effect, and - include: pun or paronoma...
colloquial words
    - employed in non-official everyday communication - mark the message as informal, non-official, conversational - their use is associated with the oral form of communication "dad", "kid", "crony", ...
completeness of sentence structure
    Includes: ellipsis , apokoinu constructions , break-in-the-narrative or aposiopesis see: types of connection , syntactical sds
consonant rhymes
    Show concordance in consonants and disparity in vowels (worth - forth, tale - tool - treble - trouble; flung - long)
detached construction
    A stylistic device based on singling out a secondary member of the sentence with the help of punctuation (intonation) (v.a.k.) i have to beg you nearly killed, ingloriously, in a jeep accident. (i...
dialectical words
    Диалектизмы such special colloquial words which - are normative and devoid of any stylistic meaning in regional dialects, but used outside of them, carry a strong flavour of the locality where the...
direct onomatopoeia
    Звукоподражание the use of words whose sounds imitate those of the signified object of action (v.a.k.) •• a combination of speech-sounds which aims at imitating sounds produced in nature (wind, se...
elative
    Элятив безотносительно большая степень признака (i.v.a.) a most valuable idea, the sweetest baby, the newest fashion of all, a most foolish wife; the orangemostest drink in the world(i.v.a.) you c...
emotive climax
    A two-step climax , in which the second part repeats the first one and is further strengthened by an intensifier (v.a.k.) •• is based on the relative emotional tension produced by words with emoti...
enumeration
  1. Перечисление a sd by which separate things, objects, phenomena, properties, actions are named one by one so that they produce a chain, the links of which, being syntactically in the same posit...
epanalepsis
    Анадиплозис, подхват, эпаналепсис, стык a, a the end of one clause (sentence) is repeated in the beginning of the following one the stylistic function is to elucidate the notion, to concretise and...
epic simile
    Extended simile , sustained expression of likeness see: simile
epigram
    Эпиграмма a) a sd akin to a proverb, the only difference being that epigrams are coined by individuals whose names we know, while proverbs are the coinage of the people b) terse, witty, pointed st...
epiphora
  1. Эпифора a, a, a, the end of successive sentences (clauses) is repeated the main stylistic function is to add stress to the final words of the sentence. (v.a.k.) i wake up and i`m alone and i w...
epithet
    Эпитет foregrounding the emotive meaning of the word to suppress its denotational meaning - is the most widely used lexical sd; - expresses characteristics of an object, both existing and imaginar...
euphemism
    Перифраз логический (эвфемистический) a phrase synonymic with the words which were substituted by periphrasis because the direct nomination of the not too elegant feature of appearance was substit...
euphemistic periphrasis
    Перифраз логический (эвфемистический) a phrase synonymic with the words which were substituted by periphrasis because the direct nomination of the not too elegant feature of appearance was substit...
euphony
    Эвфония a sense of ease and comfort in pronouncing or hearing (v.a.k.) ... silken sad uncertain//rustling of each purple curtain ... (e.a.poe) see: alliteration , assonance
expressive means
    Выразительные средства are those phonetic, morphological, word-building, lexical, phraseological and syntactical forms which exist in language-as-a-system for the purpose of logical and/or emotion...
features of belles-lettres style
    - use of words in contextual and very often in more than one dictionary meaning, or at least greatly influenced by the lexical environment. - a vocabulary which will reflect to a greater or lesser...
features of newspaper style
    - alleges and claims, restrictions of time and space - special political and economic terms, non-term political vocabulary, newspaper cliches, abbreviations, neologisms; - syntactic constructions,...
features of official style
    - special system of cliches, terms and set expressions; conventionality of expression; - each of subdivisions of this style has its own peculiar terms, phrases and expressions; - the encoded chara...
features of publicist style
    - combination of logical argumentation and emotional appeal; - features, common with the style of scientific prose and emotive prose; - coherent and logical syntactical structure, expanded system ...
figurative periphrasis
    Перифраз фигуральный (метафорический, метонимический) a periphrasis that is made of phrase-metonymies or phrase-metaphors (v.a.k.) - is to convey a purely individual perception of the described ob...
foregrounding
    The ability of a verbal element to obtain extra significance, to say more in a definite context (prague linguists) see: irony , epithet , stylistic device
full rhyme
    Identity of the vowel sound and the following consonant sounds in a stressed syllable (might - right, needless - heedless)
functional style
    Функциональный стиль, стиль речи a) a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim of communication b) includes: official style , scientific style , publicist style , newspape...
gap-sentence link
    A way of connecting two sentences seemingly unconnected and leaving it to the reader`s perspicacity to grasp the idea implied, but not worded she and that fellow ought to be the sufferers, and the...
general slang
    Such special colloquial words which - used by most speakers in very and highly informal, substandard communication - are highly emotive and expressive and as such - lose their originality rather f...