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Meteorological Glossary

potentiometerA variable resistor having three terminals and a movable wiper. Precision potentiometers can be used to create a variable resistance proportional to angular or linear displacement.
датчик потенциометрический то же: потенциометр.; послегарантийное обслуживание; потенциометр то же: датчик потенциометрический.;
liquid thermometerThermometer in which the difference in the rates of expansion with temperature of a liquid and its receptacle is used as a measure of the temperature. The liquid used may be ethyl alcohol, toluene, pe...
linearity1) The maximum departure of an instrument's actual response curve from the "best fit" straight line response. It applies only to instruments with more or less linear response, and is usually stated as...
линейность, коэффициент нелинейных искажений; линейность; lin;
lidar1) Light detecting and ranging. A technique used to detect atmospheric constituents or related parameters such as atmospheric extinction coefficient. Light is produced in a modulated source and the re...
light direction and ranging; лидар, устройство определения направления и расстояния при помощи луча света; laser intensity direction and ranging;
langley1) A unit of energy per unit area, equal to 1 gramcalorie/cm² and commonly employed in radiation measurement.
2) the unit of solar energy relating to the amount which reaches a specific area o...

koschmieder's lawA basic equation in daytime visual range theory, relating the apparent luminance of a distant black object, the apparent luminance of the background-sky above the horizon, and the extinction coefficie...
kelvin temperature scaleAn absolute temperature scale based upon the triple point of pure water defined as 273.16° K. The size of the degree is the same as on the Celsius scale, and the zero point is absolute zero.
iso-elastic springA spring which is designed to achieve a fixed spring constant over a wide temperature range. Usually, this involves the use of an alloy with high nickel content such as Ni-Span C. It is common for the...
hysteresis1) The difference noted in a sensor's output as a response to first an increasing, and then a decreasing, input signal of the same value. If Yi is the value of the output with an increasing input of v...
гистерезис;
hygrothermographInstrument resulting from the combination of a thermograph and a hygrograph and furnishing, on the same chart, simultaneous time recording of ambient temperature and humidity.
hot film anemometerAnemometer which measures wind speed by measuring the degree of cooling of a metal film heated by an electric current.
local visual distanceThe meteorological visual range, which can be estimated from the average extinction coefficient using the Koschmieder equation
low level wind shearA local variation in the wind direction or speed. This condition can present danger to aircraft, especially at landing, when a sudden shift from headwind to tailwind can cause a rapid loss of airspeed...
maximum thermometerThermometer used for measuring the highest temperature attained during a given interval of time; for example, a day.
photometer1) Instrument that measures luminous intensity, luminous flux, light distribution or color.
2) an instrument which measures luminous intensity.

parallel outputAn output which has a separate communication path (or wire) for each bit of a digital character This form of transmission makes each bit available simultaneously, and thus results in very fast communi...
osha1) The Occupational Safety and Health Administration, a regulatory office of the U.S. Department of Labor.
2) Occupational Safety and Health Administration

occupational safety and health administration; управление по технике безопасности и гигиене труда (сша);
operational weather limitsThe limiting values of ceiling, visibility and wind, or runway visual range, established as safety minima for aircraft landings and take-offs.
nws1) The National Weather Service, administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce, and responsible for the collection of weather data, the routine production of weather forecasts, and the issuance of w...
national weather service; national weather station; naval weapons station; nose-wheel steering; national weather service (noaa);
newtonian telescopeA reflecting type telescope with a 45° mirror, so that the primary image is observed through a hole in the side of the tube.
nephelometerAn instrument used to measure the scattering coefficient of an air sample caused by suspended particles. The measurement can be used to determine the visual range through the medium.
mixing ratioIn a system of moist air, the dimensionless ratio of the mass of water vapor to the mass of dry air.
minimum thermometerThermometer used for measuring the lowest temperature attained during a given interval of time; for example, a day.
microbarographAn aneroid barograph designed to record atmospheric pressure changes of very small magnitude.
headwindA wind blowing in a direction opposite to the course of a moving object. Often used when referring to winds affecting ballistics.
встречный ветер; указатель курса;
freezing point1) Temperature of solidification of a liquid under given conditions.
2) точка замерзания

fp; точка замерзания;
firmware1) Programs or instructions which are stored in read-only memory.
2) an often-used micro program or instruction set stored in rom. usually refers to the rom-based software that controls a unit. is ...

celsius1) A temperature scale having the freezing point of pure water at 0° and the boiling point at 100° under standard sea level pressure.
2) цельсий; по шкале цельсия

cel;
ceilometerInstrument used to measure cloud base height.
bimetallic thermometerA thermometer, the sensitive element of which consists of two metal strips which have different coefficients of expansion and are brazed together. The distortions of the system in response to temperat...
barometric pressureThe atmospheric pressure at a given point due to the gravitational force on the column of air above it.
bp; барометрическое; барометрическое давление; барометрическая высота;
awos1) Automated Weather Observing System. A Federal Aviation Administration specification describing an automatic weather station capable of making aviation weather observations without operator involvem...
automated weather observation system; antisubmarine warfare operators school;
asosAutomated Surface Observing System. A network of instrumented weather stations deployed primarily by the U.S. National Weather Service to make weather observations without observer involvement.
automatic surface observation system;
anemometer1) A general term for instruments designed to measure the speed or force of the wind.
2) Instrument for measuring velocity of airflow.

анемометр;
analog1) Pertaining to measurements or devices in which the output varies continuously (e.g., voltage or rotation signals); compare to digital.
2) аналоговый
3) аналог; аналоговый
4) information re...

аналоговый; anl;
alter shieldA type of wind shield used around the mouth of a precipitation gage to reduce the effect of wind on catch.
allard's lawA basic equation in night visual range theory, relating the illuminance of a point source of light to distance and the transmissivity of the atmosphere.
centigrade temperature scaleThe older name for the Celsius temperature scale. The use of this name was officially abandoned by international agreement in 1948.
cloud heightThe height of the cloud base above the local terrain.
compass pointsThe cardinal points of the compass: N, NNE, NE, etc.
drybulb temperatureThe actual temperature of the air, used for comparison with wet bulb temperature.
distance constantThe passage of air necessary over a wind speed sensor to cause the sensor to respond to 63% of a step function change in wind speed.
dewpoint temperatureThe temperature to which a given parcel of air must be cooled at constant pressure and constant water vapor content in order for saturation to occur. Any further cooling usually results in the formati...
delta temperatureThe difference between temperature measurements taken at two significant levels above the ground. Temperatures at 10 and 40 meters are commonly used.
delay distanceThe passage of air necessary over a wind vane to cause the vane to respond to 5O% of a step function change in wind direction.
dead band1) The range through which the input may be varied without initiating a response; usually expressed as a percentage of full-scale range.
2) зона нечувствительности

db; мертвая зона;
damping ratio1) A parameter used to describe the response of a wind vane to a sudden change in wind direction. It is defined as the ratio of the actual damping to the critical damping, where critical damping is th...
dr; коэффициент демпфирования;
cup anemometerAnemometer which measures wind speed by the speed of rotation of 3 or 4 hemispherical or conical cups, each fixed to the end of a horizontal arm projecting from a vertical axis.
crosswindA wind blowing perpendicular to the course of a moving object. Often used when referring to winds affecting ballistics.
боковой ветер; вертолет-кран;
conformal coatingA protective coating applied to circuits usually by spray deposition.