Глоссарий

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17 апреля, 2015

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Глоссарий по астрономии

accretion
    Accumulation of dust and gas into larger bodies such as stars, planets and moons.
albedo
    The ratio of the amount of light reflected by an object and the amount of incident light; a measure of the reflectivity or intrinsic brightness of an object (a white, perfectly reflecting surface ...
antipodal point
    The point that is directly on the opposite side of the planet
aphelion
    The point in its orbit where a planet is farthest from the sun; when refering to objects orbiting the earth the term apogee is used; the term apoapsis is used for orbits around other bodies. (oppo...
arcuate
    Having the form of a bow; curved; arc-shaped
asteroid
    (also "planetoid") a medium-sized rocky object orbiting the sun; smaller than a planet, larger than a meteoroid
asteroid number
    Asteroids are assigned a serial number when they are discovered. it has no particular meaning except that asteroid n+1 was discovered after asteroid n. (see appendix 5)
atmosphere
    = 1.013 bars = 1.03 kg/cm2 = 14.7 pounds per square inch, standard atmospheric pressure at sea level on earth.
bar
    = 0.987 atmosphere = 1.02 kg/cm2 = 100 kilopascal = 14.5 lbs/square inch.
bolide
    A fireball that produces a sonic boom
caldeira
    Crater formed by an explosion or collapse of a volcanic vent.
carbonate
    A compound containing carbon and oxygen (i.e. calcium carbonate a.k.a. limestone).
catena
    Chain of craters.
cavus
    Hollow, irregular depression.
chaos
    Distinctive area of broken terrain.
chasma
    Canyon.
chromosphere
    The lower level of the solar atmosphere between the photosphere and the corona
colles
    Small hills or knobs.
comet
    A medium-sized icy object orbiting the sun; smaller than a planet
congress
    The legislative branch of the us government; has proven to be a much more hostile environment for scientific spacecraft than the vastness of space.
corona
  1. Ovoid-shaped feature.

  2. The uppermost level of the solar atmosphere, characterized by low densities and high temperatures (> 1.0e+06° k).
coronagraph
    A special telescope which blocks light from the disk of the sun in order to study the faint solar atmosphere.
cosmic ray
    An extremely energetic (relativistic) charged particle.
crater
    Bowl-shaped depression formed by the impact of a meteorite; depression around the orifice of a volcano.
density
    Measured in grams per cubic centimeter (or kilograms per liter); the density of water is 1.0; iron is 7.9; lead is 11.3.
dinosaurs
    Large reptiles that lived in the mesozoic era from 230 to 65 million years ago; most probably wiped out by the impact of a large asteroid or comet.
disaster
    Literally "bad stars"; particularly apt in reference to a major asteroid impact.
disk
    The visible surface of the sun (or any heavenly body) projected against the sky.
doppler effect
    The apparent change in wavelength of sound or light caused by the motion of the source, observer or both. (see also)
dorsum
    Ridge.
effusive eruption
    A relative quiet volcanic eruption which puts out basaltic lava that moves at about the speed one walks; the lava is fluid in nature; the eruptions at the kilauea volcano on the island of hawaii a...
ellipse
    Oval. that the orbits of the planets are ellipses, not circles, was first discovered by johannes kepler based on the careful observations by tycho brahe.
erg/sec
    = 1e-10 kilowatts.
excentrique
    The eccentricity of an ellipse (planetary orbit) is the ratio of the distance between the focii and the major axis. equivalently the eccentricity is (ra-rp)/(ra+rp) where ra is the apoapsis distan...
explosive eruption
    A dramatic volcanic eruption which throws debris high into the air for hundreds of miles; lava is low in silicate; can be very dangerous for people near by; an example is mount st. helens in 1980<...
exponential notation
    "1.23e4" means "1.23 times 10 to the fourth power" or 12,300; "5.67e-8" means "5.67 divided by 10 to the eighth power" or 0.0000000567.
facula
    Bright spot.
farrum
    Pancake-like structure
filament
    A strand of cool gas suspended over the photosphere by magnetic fields, which appears dark as seen against the disk of the sun; a filament on the limb of the sun seen in emission against the dark ...
fireball
    A meteor brighter than magnitude -3
flare
    A sudden eruption of energy on the solar disk lasting minutes to hours, from which radiation and particles are emitted.
flexus
    Cuspate (pointed) linear feature.
fluctus
    Flow terrain.
fossa
    Long, narrow, shallow depression.