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11 декабря, 2014

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accretionAccumulation of dust and gas into larger bodies such as stars, planets and moons.
albedothe ratio of the amount of light reflected by an object and the amount of incident light; a measure of the reflectivity or intrinsic brightness of an object (a white, perfectly reflecting surface would have an albedo of 1.0; a black perfectly absorbing su
aphelionthe point in its orbit where a planet is farthest from the Sun; when refering to objects orbiting the Earth the term apogee is used; the term apoapsis is used for orbits around other bodies. (opposite of perihelion)
arcuatehaving the form of a bow; curved; arc-shaped
asteroid(also "planetoid") a medium-sized rocky object orbiting the Sun; smaller than a planet, larger than a meteoroid
asteroid numberasteroids are assigned a serial number when they are discovered. It has no particular meaning except that asteroid N+1 was discovered after asteroid N. (see appendix 5)
atmosphere= 1.013 bars = 1.03 kg/cm2 = 14.7 pounds per square inch, standard atmospheric pressure at sea level on Earth.
bar= 0.987 atmosphere = 1.02 kg/cm2 = 100 kilopascal = 14.5 lbs/square inch.
bolidea fireball that produces a sonic boom
caldeiracrater formed by an explosion or collapse of a volcanic vent.
catenachain of craters.
cavusHollow, irregular depression.
chaosdistinctive area of broken terrain.
congressthe legislative branch of the US Government; has proven to be a much more hostile environment for scientific spacecraft than the vastness of space.
cosmic rayan extremely energetic (relativistic) charged particle.
craterbowl-shaped depression formed by the impact of a meteorite; depression around the orifice of a volcano.
dinosaurslarge reptiles that lived in the Mesozoic Era from 230 to 65 million years ago; most probably wiped out by the impact of a large asteroid or comet.
doppler effectthe apparent change in wavelength of sound or light caused by the motion of the source, observer or both. (see also)
effusive eruptiona relative quiet volcanic eruption which puts out basaltic lava that moves at about the speed one walks; the lava is fluid in nature; the eruptions at the Kilauea volcano on the island of Hawaii are effusive
erg/sec= 1e-10 kilowatts.
explosive eruptiona dramatic volcanic eruption which throws debris high into the air for hundreds of miles; lava is low in silicate; can be very dangerous for people near by; an example is Mount St. Helens in 1980
exponential notation"1.23e4" means "1.23 times 10 to the fourth power" or 12,300; "5.67e-8" means "5.67 divided by 10 to the eighth power" or 0.0000000567.
faculabright spot.
farrumpancake-like structure
fireballa meteor brighter than magnitude -3
flarea sudden eruption of energy on the solar disk lasting minutes to hours, from which radiation and particles are emitted.
flexuscuspate (pointed) linear feature.
fluctusflow terrain.
fossalong, narrow, shallow depression.
heliopausethe point at which the solar wind meets the interstellar medium or solar wind from other stars.
iceused by planetary scientists to refer to water, methane, and ammonia which usually occur as solids in the outer solar system.
interplanetary magnetic field (imf)the magnetic field carried with the solar wind.
kelvin (k)0 Kelvin is absolute zero; water melts at 273 K (= 0° C = 32° F); water boils at 373 K (= 100° C = 212° F). (developed by William Thomson).
kilogram (kg)= 1000 grams = 2.2 pounds, the mass of a liter of water. (see also)
labyrinthusintersecting valley complex.
lidaran instrument similar to radar that operates at visible wavelengths.
limbthe outer edge of the apparent disk of a celestial body
lineaelongate marking.
lumiere zodicalea faint glow from light scattered off of interplanetary dust along the plane of the ecliptic.
maculadark spot.
magnetotailthe portion of a planetary magnetosphere which is pushed in the direction of the solar wind.
mareliterally "sea" (a very bad misnomer, still in use for historical reasons); really a large circular plain
mensamesa, flat-topped elevation.
metalused by astrophysicists to refer to all elements except hydrogen and helium, as in: "the universe is composed of hydrogen, helium and traces of metals".
meteoritea rock of extra-terrestrial origin found on Earth
meteoroida small rocky object orbiting the Sun; smaller than an asteroid
minor planetsthe official term used for asteroids.
monsmountain (plural: montes)
oceanusliterally "ocean"; really a large circular plain
olda planetary surface that has been modified little since its formation typically featuring large numbers of impact craters (compare young).
ovoidshaped like an egg
penumbraliterally, "dim light"; the outer filamentary region of a sunspot.
perihelionthe point in its orbit where a planet is closest to the Sun. when refering to objects orbiting the Earth the term perigee is used; the term periapsis is used for orbits around other bodies. (opposite of aphelion)
perturbto cause a planet or satellite to deviate from a theoretically regular orbital motion .
photospherethe visible surface of the Sun; sunspots and faculae are observed in the photosphere.
planumplateau or high plain.
prominencea strand of relatively cool gas in the solar corona which appears bright when seen at the edge of the Sun against the blackness of space.
ptolemy 87-150(aka Claudius Ptolemaeus) Alexandrian astronomer, mathematician, and geographer who based his astronomy on the belief that all heavenly bodies revolve around the Earth. (10k gif; more)
red gianta star that has low surface temperature and a diameter that is large relative to the Sun.
resolutionthe amount of small detail visible in an image; low resolution shows only large features, high resolution shows many small details
resonanceA state in which one orbiting object is subject to periodic gravitational perturbations by another.
scopuluslobate or irregular scarp.
semimajor axisthe semimajor axis of an ellipse (e.g. a planetary orbit) is 1/2 the length of the major axis which is a segment of a line passing thru the foci of the ellipse with endpoints on the ellipse itself. The semimajor axis of a planetary orbit is also the avera
silicatea compound containing silicon and oxygen (e.g. olivine)
sinusliterally "bay"; really a small plain
solar cyclethe approximately 11-year quasi-periodic variation in frequency or number of solar active events.
solar winda tenuous flow of gas and energetic charged particles, mostly protons and electrons -- plasma -- which stream from the Sun; typical solar wind velocities are near 350 kilometers per second.
spiculesgrass-like patterns of gas seen in the solar atmosphere.
sublime (or sublimate)to change directly from a solid to a gas without becoming liquid
sunspotan area seen as a dark spot on the photosphere of the Sun; sunspots are concentrations of magnetic flux, typically occurring in bipolar clusters or groups; they appear dark because they are cooler than the surrounding photosphere.
terraextensive land mass.
tesseratile; terrain formed of polygonal pattern
tholussmall domical mountain or hill.
trekkie(also "Trekker") a devotee of the science fiction program Star Trek.
umbrathe dark central region of a sunspot.
unite astronomique (ua)= 149,597,870 km; the average distance from the Earth to the Sun. 1 AU is a long way -- at 100 miles per hour (160 kph) it would take over 100 years to go 1 AU.
vallissinuous valley (plural: valles)