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Statistic terms

bootstrap
    [()] this is a form of randomisation test which is one of the alternatives to exhaustive re-randomisation. the bootstrap scheme involves generating subsets of the data on the basis of random sampl... бутстреп; (recomendamos usar el término original en inglés);
fisher test(2)
    [()] this is also known as the freeman-halton test. it is an extension of the logic of the fisher test(1), for a 2-way classification of counts where the extent of the cross-classification may be ...
bernouilli process
    [()] this is the simplest probability model - a single trial between two possible outcomes such as a coin toss. the distribution depends upon a single parameter,'p', representing the probability a...
stevens' typology
    [()] this is widely-observed scheme of distinctions between types of measurement scales according to the meaningfulness of arithmetic which may be performed upon data values. the types are : nomin...
shift algorithm
    [()]. algorithms employing branch-and-bound methods for the ptiman permutaion test(1) and the pitman permutation test(2).
normal distribution
  1. [] the normal distribution is a theoretical distribution applicable for continuous interval-scale data. it is related mathematically to the binomial and chi-square(2) distributions and to seve... распределение нормальное;
mann-whitney test
    [devised by ()] this is a test of difference in location for an experimental design involving two samples with data measured on an ordinal scale or better. the test statistic is a measure of ordin...
fortran
  1. [name is an acronym : formula translator]. a very long established and widely implemented programming language, specialised substantially for numerical applications. a number of standard progr... formula translation (computer language);
monte-carlo test
    [named after the famous site of gambling casinos] a monte-carlo test involves generating a random subset of the randomisation set, sampled without replacement, and using the values of the test sta...
pascal
  1. [named after the mathematician blaise pascal ( - )]. a programming language designed for clarity of expression when published in human-legible form, and for the teaching of programming. pascal... extended pascal; pa; паскаль, па; паскаль;
pitman permutation test(1)
    [named after the statistician e.j. pitman who described this test, and the pitman permutation test(2), in 1937; this is one of the earliest instances of an exact test(1)] an exact re-randomisation...
wilcoxon test(2)
    [named after the statistician f, wilcoxon ()] this is a test for an experimental design involving two independent groups of experimental units, where data need be only ordinal-scale. the purpose i...
wilcoxon test(1)
    [named after the statistician f, wilcoxon ()] this test applies to an experimental design involving two repeated measure observations on a common set of experimental units, which need be only ordi...
fisher test(1)
    [named after the statistician ra fisher()]. this is an exact test(1) to examine whether the pattern of counts in a 2x2 cross classification departs from expectations based upon the marginal totals...
chi-squared statistic
    [named by e.s. pearson ()?]. this is a long-established test statistic for measuring the extent to which a set of categorical outcomes depart from a hypothesised set of probabilities. it is calcul...
mid-p
    [proposed by h.o lancaster(), and further promoted by g.a. barnard] this is a tail definition policy that the alpha value should be calculated as the sum of the proportion of the tail for data str...
interval scale
  1. A characteristic of data such that the difference between two values measured on the scale has the same substantive meaning/significance irrespective of the common level of the two values bein... измерений шкалы;
randomisation distribution
    A collection of values of the test statistic obtained by undertaking a number of re-randomisations of the actual data within the randomisation set. also see : confidence interval, randomisation te...
relative power
    A comparison of two or more statistical tests, for the same experimental design, sample size, and nominal alpha criterion value, in terms of the respective values of power. also see : beta.
algorithm(1)
    A formal statement, clear complete and unambiguous, of how a certain process needs to be undertaken. also see : algorithm(2).
ordinal scale
    A measurement type for which the relative values of data are defined solely in terms of being lesser, equa-to or greater as compared with other data on the ordinal scale. these characteristics may... порядковая шкала;
non-parametric test
    A number of statistical tests were devised, mostly over the period 1930-1960, with the specific objective of by-passing assumptions about sampling from populations with data supposedly conforming ...
statistic
  1. A number or code derived by a prior-defined consistent process of calculation, from a set of data. also see : algorithm(1), test statistic.

  2. A number that can be computed from data, ... статистика; статистический;
continuous distribution
    A probability distribution of a continuous statistic, based upon an algebraic formula, such that for any possible value of the cumulative probability there is an exact corresponding value of the s...
discrete distribution
    A probability distribution of some statistic, based upon an algebraic formula or upon re-randomisation or upon actual data, in which the cumulative probability increases in non-infinitesmal steps ...
poisson process
    A process whereby events occur independently in some continuum (in many applications, time), such that the overall density (rate) is statistically constant but that it is impossible to improve any...
compiler
  1. A program supplied especially for a particular type of computer, to enable the translation of code expressed in some programming language into object code for that computer. a compiler underta... recompilador .; compilador; компилятор;
standard programming language
    A programming language which has a publicly agreed common form across several different types of computer. such standardisation allows a program to be transported conveniently between the differen...
nominal alpha criterion level
    A publicly agreed value for type-1 error, such that the outcome of a statistical test is classified in terms of whether the obtained value of alpha is extreme as compared with this criterion level...
two-way table
    A representation of suitable data in a table organised as rows and columns, such that the rows represent one scheme of alternatives covering the whole of the the data represented, the columns repr... 2-way table;
decision rule
    A rule for comparing the outcome value of alpha with a nominal alpha criterion level (such as 0.05). an outcome value smaller (more extreme) than the nominal alpha criterion level leads to a decis...
random sample
  1. A sample drawn from a population in such a way that every individual of the population has an equal chance of appearing in the sample. this ensures that the sample is representative, and provi... случайная выборка; выборка;
program
  1. A sequence of instructions expressed in some programming language. also see algorithm(2).

  2. Программа

  3. Программа (ряд взаимосвязанных мероприятий по осуществлению проекта) программа свободного выбора и зачисления; программа преподавания английского как; программа выбора муниципальных школ по; программа; prog; вычислительная; программа для эвм;
exhaustive re-randomisation
    A series of samples from a randomisation set which is known to generate every randomisation. in particular, sampling which generates every randomisation exactly once.
pseudo-random
    A source of data which is effectively unpredictable although generated by a determinate process. successive pseudo-random data are produced by a fixed calculation process acting upon preceding dat... seed; псевдослучайный;
computer program
  1. A specification of how to undertake a certain process, usually expressed via a programming language, for some chosen computer. also see : program.

  2. Машинная программа

  3. Прог... comprog; scp sage; программа для пк;
test statistic
  1. A statistic measuring the strength of the pattern which a statistical test undertakes to detect. in the context of re-randomisation tests one is concerned with the distribution of the values o...
exact binomial test
    A statistical test referring to the binomial distribution in its exact algebraic form, rather than through continuous approximations which are used especially where sample sizes are substantial. a...
difference of means
    A test statistic of intuitive appeal for measuring difference in location between two samples with interval-scale data. employing this test statistic in an exact test defines the pitman permutatio...
exact test(2)
    A test which yields an alpha value which does not depend upon the nominal alpha criterion value which may have been set for alpha. this is in contrast to the possible practice of producing only a ...
rng
  1. Acronym for random number generator. this is a process which uses a arithmetic algorithm to generate sequences of pseudo-random numbers. also see : seed.

  2. Range
range;
re-randomisation statistics
    Also known as permutation or randomisation(1) statistics. these are the specific area of concern of this present glossary.
algorithm(2)
    An algorithm(1) expressed in a programming language for a computer .
odds ratio
    An alternative characterisation of the parameter 'p' for a binomial process is the ratio of the incidences of the two alternatives : p/(1-p) ; this quantity is termed the odds ratio; the value may... cociente de probabilidades; razón de momios; мантеля-хензеля; шансов отношение;
pitman permutation test(2)
    An exact re-randomisation test in which the test statistic is the mean difference of a single sample of univariate data measured under two circumstances as repeated measures. also see : pitman per...
degrees of freedom
  1. An integer value measuring the extent to which an experimental design imposes constraints upon the pattern of the mean values of data from various meaningful subsets of data. this value is fre...
branch-and-bound
    Exploration of a randomisation distribution in such a way as to anticipate the effect of the next randomisation(3) relative to the present randomisation(3). this allows selective search of particu...
minimal-change sequence
    Exploration of a randomisation distribution is such a sequence that the successive randomisation(3)s differ is a simple way. in the context of a ranodmisation test this can mean that the value of ...
confidence interval
  1. For a given re-randomisation distribution, a family of related distributions may be defined according to a range of hypothetical values of the pattern which the test statistic measures. for in... доверительный интервал; ci;
randomisation(1)
    Generation of whole or part of the randomisation set. also see : randomisation(3), re-randomisation.