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Statistic terms

2-by-2 table
    This is a two-way table where the numbers of levels of the row- and column-classifications are each 2. if the row- and column- classifications each divide the observational units into subsets, the...
2-way table
    two-way table;
    algorithm(1)
      A formal statement, clear complete and unambiguous, of how a certain process needs to be undertaken. also see : algorithm(2).
    algorithm(2)
      An algorithm(1) expressed in a programming language for a computer .
    bernouilli process
      [()] this is the simplest probability model - a single trial between two possible outcomes such as a coin toss. the distribution depends upon a single parameter,'p', representing the probability a...
    binomial distribution
    1. This is a special case of the multinomial distribution where the number of possible outcomes is 2. it is the distribution of outcomes expected if a certain number of independent trials are und... распределение биномиальное;
    binomial test
      This is a statistical test referring to a repeated binary process such as would be expected to generate outcomes with a binomial distribution. a value for the parameter 'p' is hypothesised (null h...
    bootstrap
      [()] this is a form of randomisation test which is one of the alternatives to exhaustive re-randomisation. the bootstrap scheme involves generating subsets of the data on the basis of random sampl... бутстреп; (recomendamos usar el término original en inglés);
    branch-and-bound
      Exploration of a randomisation distribution in such a way as to anticipate the effect of the next randomisation(3) relative to the present randomisation(3). this allows selective search of particu...
    chi-squared distribution
      Where expected frequencies are sufficiently high, hypothesised distributions of counts may be approximated by a normal distribution rather than an exact binomial distribution. the corresponding di...
    chi-squared statistic
      [named by e.s. pearson ()?]. this is a long-established test statistic for measuring the extent to which a set of categorical outcomes depart from a hypothesised set of probabilities. it is calcul...
    compiler
    1. A program supplied especially for a particular type of computer, to enable the translation of code expressed in some programming language into object code for that computer. a compiler underta... recompilador .; compilador; компилятор;
    computer program
    1. A specification of how to undertake a certain process, usually expressed via a programming language, for some chosen computer. also see : program.

    2. Машинная программа

    3. Прог... comprog; scp sage; программа для пк;
    confidence interval
    1. For a given re-randomisation distribution, a family of related distributions may be defined according to a range of hypothetical values of the pattern which the test statistic measures. for in... доверительный интервал; ci;
    continuous distribution
      A probability distribution of a continuous statistic, based upon an algebraic formula, such that for any possible value of the cumulative probability there is an exact corresponding value of the s...
    decision rule
      A rule for comparing the outcome value of alpha with a nominal alpha criterion level (such as 0.05). an outcome value smaller (more extreme) than the nominal alpha criterion level leads to a decis...
    degrees of freedom
      An integer value measuring the extent to which an experimental design imposes constraints upon the pattern of the mean values of data from various meaningful subsets of data. this value is frequen...
    difference of means
      A test statistic of intuitive appeal for measuring difference in location between two samples with interval-scale data. employing this test statistic in an exact test defines the pitman permutatio...
    discrete distribution
      A probability distribution of some statistic, based upon an algebraic formula or upon re-randomisation or upon actual data, in which the cumulative probability increases in non-infinitesmal steps ...
    equivalent test statistic
      Within a randomisation set, it is possible that two different statistics may be inter-related in a manner which is provably monotonic irrespective of the data. in such a situation a randomisation ...
    error types
      alpha, beta, type-1 error, type-2 error;
      exact binomial test
        A statistical test referring to the binomial distribution in its exact algebraic form, rather than through continuous approximations which are used especially where sample sizes are substantial. a...
      exact test(1)
        The characteristic of a re-randomisation test based upon exhaustive re-randomisation, that the value of alpha will be fixed irrespective of any random sampling of randomisations or upon any distri...
      exact test(2)
        A test which yields an alpha value which does not depend upon the nominal alpha criterion value which may have been set for alpha. this is in contrast to the possible practice of producing only a ...
      exact-stats
        This is the name of the academic initiative which produced this present glossary. exact-stats is a closed e-mail based discussion group for the development and promulgation of the ideas of re-rand...
      exhaustive re-randomisation
        A series of samples from a randomisation set which is known to generate every randomisation. in particular, sampling which generates every randomisation exactly once.
      experimental design
        This term overtly refers to the planning of a process of data collection. the term is also used to refer to the information necessary to describe the interrelationships within a set of data. such ...
      extended pascal
        pascal;
        factorial
        1. The factorial operator is applicable to a non-negative integer quantity. it is notated as the postfixed symbol '!'. the resulting value is the product of the increasing integer values from 1 u... факторный;
        fisher test(1)
          [named after the statistician ra fisher()]. this is an exact test(1) to examine whether the pattern of counts in a 2x2 cross classification departs from expectations based upon the marginal totals...
        fisher test(2)
          [()] this is also known as the freeman-halton test. it is an extension of the logic of the fisher test(1), for a 2-way classification of counts where the extent of the cross-classification may be ...
        fortran
        1. [name is an acronym : formula translator]. a very long established and widely implemented programming language, specialised substantially for numerical applications. a number of standard progr... formula translation (computer language);
        freeman-halton test
          fisher test;
          gold standard(1)
            The gold standard is the form of test which is most faithful to the randomisation distribution, for a given test statistic and experimental design. this involves exhaustive randomisation. other ra...
          gold standard(2)
            The idea of a re-randomisation test as a standard of correctness by which to judge other tests which are not based upon principles of re-randomisation.
          interval scale
            A characteristic of data such that the difference between two values measured on the scale has the same substantive meaning/significance irrespective of the common level of the two values being co... измерений шкалы;
          logistic regression
            This relates to an experimental design for predicting a binary categorical (yes/no) outome on the basis of predictor variables measured on interval scales. for each of a set of values of the predi...
          mann-whitney test
            [devised by ()] this is a test of difference in location for an experimental design involving two samples with data measured on an ordinal scale or better. the test statistic is a measure of ordin...
          measurement type
            This is a distinction regarding the relationship between a phenomenon being measured and the data as recorded. the main distinctions are concerned with the meaningfulness of numerical comparisons ... scale type;
          mid-p
            [proposed by h.o lancaster(), and further promoted by g.a. barnard] this is a tail definition policy that the alpha value should be calculated as the sum of the proportion of the tail for data str...
          minimal-change sequence
            Exploration of a randomisation distribution is such a sequence that the successive randomisation(3)s differ is a simple way. in the context of a ranodmisation test this can mean that the value of ...
          monte-carlo test
            [named after the famous site of gambling casinos] a monte-carlo test involves generating a random subset of the randomisation set, sampled without replacement, and using the values of the test sta...
          multinomial distribution
          1. This is the distribution of outcomes expected if a certain number of independent trials are undertaken of a several separate bernouilli processes, to determine a number of alternative outcomes... распределение мультиномиальное;
          nominal alpha criterion level
            A publicly agreed value for type-1 error, such that the outcome of a statistical test is classified in terms of whether the obtained value of alpha is extreme as compared with this criterion level...
          nominal scale
            This is a type of measurement scale with a limited number of possible outcomes which cannot be placed in any order representing the intrinsic properties of the measurements. examples : female vers... измерений шкала;
          non-parametric test
            A number of statistical tests were devised, mostly over the period 1930-1960, with the specific objective of by-passing assumptions about sampling from populations with data supposedly conforming ...
          normal distribution
          1. [] the normal distribution is a theoretical distribution applicable for continuous interval-scale data. it is related mathematically to the binomial and chi-square(2) distributions and to seve... распределение нормальное;
          null hypothesis
          1. In order to test whether a supposed interesting pattern exists in a set of data, it is usual to propose a null hypothesis that the pattern does not exist. it is the unexpectedness of the degre... нулевая гипотеза;
          object code
            This is the code which a computer recognises and acts upon as a direct consequence of its electromechanical construction. typically such code is highly abstract and unsuitable for use in general u...
          odds ratio
            An alternative characterisation of the parameter 'p' for a binomial process is the ratio of the incidences of the two alternatives : p/(1-p) ; this quantity is termed the odds ratio; the value may... cociente de probabilidades; razón de momios; мантеля-хензеля; шансов отношение;