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Глоссарий по теории волн

yield strength (ys)The stress (load/area) at which the metal changes from elastic to plastic in behavior, i.e., takes a permanent set.
quantitative analysis1) An analysis of objects or processes, which is concerned with measuring temperatures or radiant energy levels by assigning numerical values to the characteristics of the displayed scene.
2) количественный анализ
pyrometerAn instrument of various types used for measuring temperatures
plasticityThe ability of a metal to be deformed extensively without rupture. Plastic deformation is the elongation that occurs that not will be recovered with the removal of the load. pull wire trough the hard die. Also used to cool the wire.
photopicBright light conditions where only the cones are functional
photography1) Technique of producing permanent images on sensitized surfaces by means of the photochemical action of light or other forms of radiant energy.
2) writing with light.
3) the word photography comes from two old greek words “phos” meaning light and “graph” meaning to draw. so photograph literally means to draw with light, or a drawing made with light. so photography is the art of drawing with light.
peltier effectThe ability for two dissimilar metals and metal/semiconductors to create a thermal difference when current flows across the dissimilar junction
patenting1) Treatment of steel, usually in wire form, in which the metal is gradually heated to about 1830°F, with subsequent cooling, usually in air, in a bath of molten lead, or in a fused salt mixture held between 800°F and 1050°F.
2) патентование
passive infraredThe normal form of infrared system in use commercially. A passive system does not generate a thermal source to illuminate the scene, it is only acted upon. A passive system monitors the flux of photons already being generated by the scene within its field
opaque1) Transmittance (t) equals zero
2) optical atmospheric qualities in europe
3) non-transparent; incapable of transmitting light.
4) a material for retouching photographic images, generally containing graphite or
5) an object or material that does not transmit light. also, a dense client.
6) impenetrable by light, does not refract light.
7) in paper, the property that makes it less transparent.
noise equivalent temperature difference (nedt)Is the temperature difference at which the signal amplitude equals the total noise. That it is when SNR = 1.
netdNoise Equivalent Temperature Difference
mrtdMinimum resolvable temperature difference
modtranTransmission model. It is most widely used atmospheric absorption.
milliradians1) A measure of small angles. Two thousand-pi milliradians can be measured in a complete circle. There are 17.4 mrads per degree of angle.
2) миллирадианы
mid infrared (mwir)The middle infrared spectrum, (window) usually from 2.4 to 7.0 microns.
micron (m)A measurement of length in the metric system appropriate for measuring infrared radiation wavelengths. 1,000,000 microns equals one meter
radiosityAccounts for all of the radiant energy leaving a surface. Target exitance --- (We + Wr + Wt )
recrystallizationA process whereby a distorted grain structure of cold worked metals is replaced by a new, stress-free grain structure as a result of annealing above a specific minimum temperature for a specific time.
yield pointThe load per unit of original cross section at which, in soft steel, a marked increase in deformation occurs without increase in load.
welding1) A process used to join metals by the application of heat. Fusion welding, which includes gas, arc, and resistance welding, requires that the parent metals be melted. This distinguishes fusion welding from brazing. In pressure welding joining is accomplish
2) сварка
wavenumber1) The reciprocal of wavelength 1/ ? cm ¬ ¹
2) the phase delay per unit length, or that quantity divided by 2?
wavelenghThe length of distance between cycles on a repetitive event.
visible light1) Electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths which the human eye can see.
2) electromagnetic wavelengths, ranging from 380-770 nm, that are visible to the human eye
3) electromagnetic radiation visible to the human eye at wavelengths of 400 to 700nm.
4) the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the eye.
uni1) Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione --Italy (Milano) /Italian National Entity for Unification
2) User Network Interface
thermogramA two-dimensional hard copy record of the apparent scene temperatures displayed on an IR system.
strain hardeningAn increase in hardness and strength caused by plastic deformation at temperatures lower than the recrystallization range.
strain agingAging induced by cold working.
speed of light1) The speed at which electromagnetic radiation propagates in a vacuum; it is defined as 299 792 458 m/s (~186,000 miles/second).
2) 2.998 x 108 meters per second measured in a vacuum
specular reflection1) (Lambertian surface) Reflection from smooth surface in which angle of incidence is equal to angle of reflection. The surface radiance it is independent of the angle.
2) a mirror-like reflection.
spectral coverageThe number of spectral bands and their associated spectral resolution needed to faithfully extract target information.
scotopicDim light conditions where only rods are functional
room temperature1) At or near 74 º F (24 º C ).
2) комнатная температура
residual stressMacroscopic stresses that are set up within a metal as the result of no uniform plastic deformation. This deformation may be caused by cold working or by drastic gradients of temperature from quenching or welding.
renderingProcess in which two-dimensional image it is obtaining from three-dimensional target
mesopicIntensities of light under which both rods and cones operate
mercosurStandard for the common market of the south --CMN (Mercosur Committee of Normalization), Regional Organization of normalization of the Mercosur, integrated by the national organisms of normalization of the countries belonging to the common market
dislocationslinear defects in a crystal.
diffuse reflection (surface scatter)The reflection from a rough surface that emerges at almost any angle
daltonismRelated with vision that are color- blindness
copantComisión Panamericana de Normas. Pan-American Commission of Technical Standards. Regional Organization integrated by the organisms of normalization of 18 countries of the American continent and to which they stick the national organisms of normal
cell fill factorIs the fraction of detector cell area occupied by the zone actively involved in the generation of signal radiance.
carbon rangeIn steel specifications, the carbon range is the difference between the minimum and maximum amount of carbon acceptable.
brittel materialsMaterials that experience little, if any, plastic deformation before the onset of fracture
bonderizingThe coating of steel with a film composed largely of zinc phosphate in order to develop better bonding surface for paint or lacquer.
blackbodyis defined as an object that absorbs all radiation that impinges on it at any wavelength.
binocularDesignating any instrument in which both eyes can be used to view the image to achieve a stereoscopic effect, or merely to facilitate observation. A pair of telescopes with prismatically erected images, mounted side by side with the eyepieces at the inter
atmospheric windowsSpectral radiation regions not absorbed by atmospheric gasses. These windows are transparent to radiation at those wavelengths. The most obvious window is the visible light window - If the smog is not too bad we can see through the atmosphere forever.
atmospheric turbulenceRefers to the density fluctuations arising from atmospheric temperature fluctuations. (Not fluid dynamics turbulence)
atmospheric temperatureIs the temperature of the atmosphere between the object and the scanner. Some of the radiation that reaches the scanner emanates from the object and some from atmosphere that it is not perfectly transparent to the infrared radiation and therefore also rad
area coverage rateAmount of image area per unit time collected by the system at the given resolution
annealingA heating and cooling operation implying usually a relatively slow cooling. Annealing is a comprehensive term. The process of such a heat treatment may be
agingSpontaneous change in the physical properties of some metals, which occurs on standing, at atmospheric temperatures after final cold working or after a final heat treatment. Frequently synonymous with the term " Age-Hardening."
ductilityThe property of metals that enables them to be mechanically deformed when cold, without fracture. In steel, ductility is usually measured by elongation and reduction of area as determined in a tensile test. Brittle materials experience little or no plasti
elastic limit1) Maximum stress that a material will stand before permanent deformation occurs.
2) предел упругости
medium-carbon steelContains from 0.30% to 0.60% carbon and less than 1.00% manganese. May be made by any of the standard processes.
mechanical propertiesThose properties of a material that reveal the elastic and inelastic reaction when force is applied, or that involve the relationship between stress and strain; for example, the modulus of elasticity, tensile strength and fatigue limit. These properties h
low carbon steelsContain from 0.10 to 0.30% carbon and less than 0.60% manganese. (The product of Basic Oxygen, Bessemer, Open Hearth or Electric Processes.)
kelvin1) (Lord Kelvin---1824 - 1907) Thermodynamic temperature scale. The zero Kelvin is - 273,16 ºC (Celsius or centigrade) or - 459,7 ºF (Fahrenheit). A temperature scale often used in sciences such as astronomy.
2) One of the basic physical units of measurement for temperature. The scale is the same
3) one of the basic physical units of measurement for temperature. the scale is the same as the celsius, but the 0?k starts from -273?c. also the unit of measurement of the temperature of light is expressed in s or k. in color recording, light temperature affects the color values of the lights and the scene that they illuminate.
4) is the absolute measurement of colour temperature. on your camera under the white balance settings you make see a “k” setting. this allows you to adjust the colour manually by degrees kelvin. the lower numbers represent warmer colours like orange (tungsten light) and the higher numbers are cooler (blues). play with this scale to create different affects.
iramInstituto Argentino de Nomalizacion--Argentina (Buenos Aires) / Argentinean Normalization Standards Institute (Standards)
ionizing radiation1) Generally, any radiation that can form ions, either directly or indirectly, while traveling through a substance. Above visible light and starting in the ultra-violet frequencies, ionizing radiation has sufficient capacity to break a chemical bond and ther
2) radiation commonly associated with x-ray or other high energy electromagnetic radiation which will cause dna damage with no direct, immediate thermal effect. contrasts with non-ionizing radiation of lasers.
infrared (ir)1) Electromagnetic radiation which occupies the band from 0.7 microns to 100 microns. Infrared radiation is between the visible spectrum and microwave radiation. Emission of energy as electromagnetic waves in the portion of the spectrum just beyond the limit
2) Low frequency light below the visible spectrum. Infrared is used in surveillance cameras to provide a light source to record images in dark and zero light conditions.
3) Infrared (IR) cameras feature built-in illuminators that project infrared light, which is nearly invisible to the human eye but very visible to IR surveillance cameras. This technology allows you to capture crystal clear, black and white video of suspects who feel protected by complete darkness. IR cameras are very effective in covering targeted areas with little or no light, ranging from exterior parking areas and entryways, to interior rooms requiring 24 hour surveillance. For coverage of wider areas, consider adding an additional external infrared illuminator.
4) light with wavelengths longer than 700nm and shorter than about 1mm, invisible to the human eye, which we can feel as heat. glass optical fibers transmit infrared signals at 700 to about 1650nm in the infrared.
hard drawnWire or tubing drawn to high tensile strength by a high degree of cold work.
hard drawingdrawing metal wire through a die to reduce cross section and increase tensile strength.
frame rate1) Is the rate at which an entire scene is change when every pixel is commanded to project a new value of signal radiance.
2) The number of frames per second that the camera produces.
3) the number of frames that are shown or sent each second. live action relates to a frame rate of 30 frames per second.
4) number of frames that are shown or sent each second. live action is around 30 frames per second.
filter (optical)An optical device, which modifies the characteristics of radiation, which is passed through it. Usually filters either attenuate all wavelengths of radiation a certain controlled amount or modify the optical pass band of the radiation - eliminating select
field of view (fov)The total field measured in angle within which objects can be imaged or measured and displayed by an infrared system.
face centered(Concerning cubic space lattices) - Having equivalent points at the corners of the unit cell and at the centers of its six faces. A face-centered cubic space lattice is characteristic of one of the close-packed arrangements of equal hard spheres.
emissivity1) The ability of an object to radiate and absorb energy from its surroundings measured as a ratio of the actual object emission to the blackbody equivalent emission
2) the ratio of the radiant energy emitted by any source to that emitted by a blackbody at the same temperature.
electromagnetic radiation1) The field effects given off by accelerating a charged particle in a magnetic field. Depending on field strength and speed of acceleration, many types of electromagnetic radiation are created.
2) электромагнитное излучение
3) waves made up of oscillating electrical and magnetic fields perpendicular to one another and traveling at the speed of light. can also be viewed as photons or quanta of energy. electromagnetic radiation includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, x rays, and gamma rays.
actinic1) With respect to radiation, the characteristic that indicates capability to produce chemical change, as in the photographic activity of light. Electromagnetic energy that is capable of producing photochemical activity
2) optical energy that is absorbed by radiation-sensitive coatings to produce an